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Full text of "Sloan's homestead architecture, containing forty designs for villas, cottages, and farm houses, with essays on style, construction, landscape gardening, furniture, etc., etc. Illustrated with upwards of 200 engravings"

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1 


FRIENDS OF THE FOCC 

tnta 


2 FINE ART* LIRRARY 3 


Fine Arts Library 


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1 


given through the 




generosity of 


James Sturgis Pray 


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From the 

Fine Arts Library 

Fogg Art Museum 
Hary ir /J University 





SLOAN'S 
HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE, 

CONTAINING ' 

$mta lesigus for Villas, Ctrttaflts, sift Jwm fffttsis, 

WITH BSSATS OS 

STYLE, CONSTRUCTION, LANDSCAPE GARDENING, FURNITURE, 

~ BTO. »TC. 

« 

ILLUSTRATED WITH UFWARD6 OF 200 ENGRAVINGS. 



BY 

SAMUEL SLOAN, 

ARCHITECT, 

AUTHOR OV THI *'MODK1. AXCHmCT," *GITT AHD BUBUHA* AEOfflTlOTUTU," "OOH8TRUCTTO 
AICUTJWTUU," no. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO. 
1861. 






HMVAftD COLLEGE LIBRMV 
GIFT OF 

Macs smuts may 

7 ya v? A%r 



Bntered, according to Act of Congress, In the year ISO, by 
SAMUEL SLOAN, 
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the 
i District of FennsylTanift. 



PREFACE. 



But little preface is deemed necessary to the publication of this 
series of Designs. All will admit that popular works on Archi- 
tecture are a desideratum of the day and nation, which the indus- 
try and ability of Architects must be heavily taxed to supply. 
Society needs to be awakened, and, where the light has already 
dawned, to be encouraged and assisted in the development of the 
highest charms belonging to that spot of which so much has been 
said and sung — Homjl 

No influence is more potent in producing changes in the work- 
ings of the great machinery of society than that of the press. 
The reforms wrought by its agency are heralded too constantly 
and praised too loudly for this fact to be overlooked or forgotten 
a moment by those who wish to wield their influence in the great 
cause of advancement; and the present rapid development and 
general application of the art of wood-engraving opens a field 
for the interchange of ideas by linear illustrations totally un- 
heard of in former times. With these influences at work, guided 
by intelligent minds, among an industrious and energetic people 
the future of American Architecture promises to take as high 
rank in the Art world as is allotted to the productions of any age 
or country. 

Domestic Architecture having its foundation in the simplest 
wants of our nature, is in its first stages a rude manifestation of 
art. But as society emerges from a state of simplicity, its con- 
comitants become in proportion more complex and varied, and 
furnish in the one department of making provision of suitable 
dwelling-places a wide and ever-expanding field for the genius 

1* (T) 



VI PREFACE. 

of the modern Architect. And it is necessary to the most perfect 
development of the general character of these dwelling-places 
that the people shonld be induced to seek the acquaintance of the 
Architect; that they shonld hear what he has to say to them 
through the medium of books ; that they shonld learn that his mis- 
sion and business in this world is not merely to draw columns and 
entablatures after the set form and proportions given by Palladio 
or Michael Angelo, but to be the minister of nature in this de- 
partment of art, and thus promote harmony between the works of 
man and the works of God. The popular feeling too prevalent 
concerning the Architect is, that he is the hero in a certain drama 
called " The Five Orders," who plays his part, compass and 
scale in hand, intensely devoted to trigonometry, columns, flutes, 
and acanthus leaves or Ionic spirals, while the appliances of do- 
mestic comfort are supposed to be as remote from his sphere of 
knowledge and action as the earth is from the moon. While we 
confess that the conduct of the profession has done much to en- 
gender, nourish, and sustain this prejudice in the popular mind, we 
most emphatically deny the name of architect to the mere imi- 
tator of ancient models, with the same propriety that we deny the 
name of man to his outward form or semblance without the vital 
principle. The true Architect, and more particularly the rural 
Architect, should possess, with the knowledge of architectural 
fitness deduced from ancient models, a love of nature, with an 
artistic perception of her beauties and the relationship that ought 
to exist between the artificial and the natural, along with the ca- 
pacity for carrying his designs into effect. Without these qualifi- 
cations, and the practical knowledge of building that can only be 
acquired by the faithful study and observation of years, he is poorly 
fitted for the responsibility of improving or even maintaining the 
standard of taste in Rural Architecture. 

We present in this work a series of designs not only showing 
what has been done, but suggestive of what may be done. Many 
of these have been executed within the last few years in different 



PREFACE Vll 

parts of the Union, some are now being erected, and others have 
been prepared expressly for publication. 

Some hints on Landscape Gardening are offered with the hope 
of encouraging attention to the embellishment of the surround- 
ings of country homes, a matter to the importance of which the 
popular feeling has not as yet been fully awakened. This art 
• is so intimately related to Rural Architecture as to be almost 
inseparable from it in proper practice, — for the relative beauty 
of a country house depends almost as much on the scenery in 
which it is placed as on the intrinsic merit of the design. 

In addition to the subjects ordinarily falling under the consider- 
ation of the Architect, we introduce an essay on house-furNish- 
ing, accompanied by illustrative cuts, exhibiting the principal 
articles of furniture in the most approved modern styles. 

At one time during the preparation of our work, we proposed, 

for the sake of variety, the insertion of a few colored lithographs; 

but a little further consideration induced us to relinquish that idea 

and carry the whole through with wood-engravings, although the 

latter course involved a much greater expenditure of time and 

money. 

SAMUEL SLOAN, Architect, 

No. 152 South Fourth Street, Philadelphia. 



CONTENTS. 



Drawings IS 

Siliotiok or A Sin ~ IS 

Remarks on Style M n 26 

HlNTS OH CONSTRUCTION « 81 

DESIGN I. 
An Oriental Villa „„ 67 

DESIGN II. 
An Italian Villa 66 

DESIGN III. 
A Farm House 78 

DESIGN IV. 
A Suburban Villa 81 

DESIGN V. 
A Picturesque Gothic Cottage 89 

DESIGN VI. 
A Bracketed American Cottage M 96 

DESIGN VII. 
An Irregular Northern Villa 101 

DESIGN VIII. 
Model Residence for a Physician « 107 



X CONTENTS 

DESIGN IX. 
A Small Villa in the Pointed Style 118 

DESIGN X. 
A Villa in the Italian Style 119 

DESIGN XI. 
A Cottage with Truncated Roof M 125 

DESIGN XII. 
A Suburban Villa, No. 2 181 

DESIGN XIII. 
An Irregular Bracketed Country House 187 

DESIGN XIV. 
Small Decorated Gothio Villa 148 

DESIGN XV. 
A Cottage for a Mechanic or Clerk ~« 149 

DESIGN XVI. 
Bracketed Village Residence , - 158 

DESIGN XVII. 
Plain Country House 157 

DESIGN XVIII. 
Model Braoketed Cottage , 161 

DESIGN XIX. 
Plantation Residence 165 

DESIGN XX. 
Country House for any Climate 171 

DESIGN XXI. 
Country Residence in the Gothio Style 175 

WABHIHO AHD VlNTILATIOH 177 

DESIGN XXII. 
Suburban Residence 191 



CONTENTS. XI 

DESIGN XXin. 
Cottage in the Rural Gothic Style 195 

DESIGNS XXIV., XXV. 
Plain Model Cottages 109 

DESIGN XXVI. 
Northern Cottage— Gothic Style. 208 

DESIGN XXVn. 
A Lake or Error Villa in the Italian Style 207 

DESIGN XXVIII. 
A Large Northern Farm House 218 

DESIGN XXIX. 
Country House— Gothic Style 221 

DESIGN XXX. 
An Irregular Country House ~ 225 

DESIGN XXXI. 
An Anglo-French Villa 229 

DESIGN XXXII. 

Large Country House, Italian Style 288 

ExnuoB Joijciry 287 

DESIGN XXXIII. 
A Picturesque Villa 249 

DESIGN XXXIV. 
Anglo-French Villa, No. 2 258 

Ixnnioa Fixish M 255 

Thb Duxb-waitib ~ 269 

DESIGN XXXV. 
Clustered Cottages 278 

DESIGN XXXVI. 
8mall Bracketed Villa ~ 277 



Xii CONTENTS. 

DE8IGN XXXVII. 
Residence in the German-Gothio Style- ~..™ .......__... 281 



DESIGN XXXVIIL 
Symmetrical Cottage « ~ ................ _.... 285 



DESIGN XXXIX. 
Workingman'e Model Cottage .. 286 

GROUND PLANS. 

A Doable House 287 

A Plain Farm Dwelling 288 

Cabbiags-housb and Stable 291 

EMBELLISHMENT OF G BOUND 8 298 

APPENDIX. 
Tbbba-Cotta •. < 809 

fubnitubb m 811 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



HMh 



Ibafoittg** 



11 When we mean to build, 
We first survey the plot, then draw the model ; 
And when we see the figure of the house, 
Then must we rate the cost of the erection, 
Which if we find outweighs ability, 
What do we then but draw anew the model T" 

Shakspiabi's Hinet IV. 

If the bard of Avon had been himself an archi- 
tect, he could not have presented a clearer view of 
the practical elementary duties of the profession; 
and the flight of three centuries, so far from having 
impaired the necessity of the course indicated, has 
only rendered its terms more obligatory. As the re- 
quirements of living become more complicated with 
the growth of refinement, from the higher interest 
that obtains for the comfort and welfare of society, 
the difficulties of happy combinations and orderly 
arrangement are greatly increased ; and this in some 
cases to such an extent that, without a realization on 
paper of the peculiar properties of the projected struc- 
ture, such as its adaptation to the end in view and 
its aspect as a thing of beauty, there is a danger of 

2 (18) 



14 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE, 

running into inextricable difficulties before the accom- 
plishment of the intended result. 

As order is a fundamental principle in all things 
of artificial origin, having their basis in reason, it 
follows that without it, human performances would 
exhibit a disorder only equaled by the minds that 
conceived them. And it is a remarkable fact, that 
nothing is more promotive of the development of an 
orderly mind than the study of figures and lines, and 
their delineation and disposal with regard to sym- 
metry and relative beauty. Architectural drawing, 
embracing the representation of plans, elevations, and 
isometrical and perspective views, as a study furnishes 
a great field for mental improvement. Carpenters and 
stone-masons attain a degree of architectural knowl- 
edge unknown to other mechanics, which is accounted 
for by the fact that they employ more or less of the 
art of drawing to make themselves and each other 
understood; in almost all cases when full drawings 
are given for a building, a carpenter is intrusted 
with the superintendence, to see that they axe fairly 
executed. We do not mean by this that every car- 
penter is an architect, or that it would be best for 
him to attempt to thrust into the already crowded 
profession, but that it is, in the first place, necessary 
for every mechanic to understand the principal con- 
ventional peculiarities of representation as practiced 
by architects; and, in the second place, that everybody 
(for in this country everybody has the chance) should 
study the elements of architectural drawing, "practi- 
cal geometry," and this without regard to sex or 
occupation. Such knowledge, in the hands of the 
mechanic, enables him to carry out whatever ideas 



DRAWINGS. 15 

may come to him from the pencil of the designer, in 
compensation for which ability he is sure to receive a 
higher rate of wages than his less qualified competi- 
tors, and the applause that is always awarded to the 
intelligent over the ignorant. 

We do not think that the study of architecture ought 
to be restricted to our own sex. Hear what an eminent 
writer says on this subject: "It is not," says he, "in 
order that they may be able to draw columns, for this is 
merely the means, not the end of the pursuit, that we 
would suggest the propriety of ladies applying them- 
selves to what has hitherto never been included within 
the circle of female acquirements; but that they may 
thereby cultivate their taste, and ground it on some- 
thing less baseless and shifting than mere feminine 
likings and dislikings. And when we consider how 
wide is the province, how influential the authority 
which the sex are apt to claim in such matters ; how 
much, in all that regards ornamental furniture and 
interior embellishments, depends on the refined or 
trivial taste of our fairer halves, it must be acknowl- 
edged that to initiate them into such studies would 
not be an act of perfect disinterestedness. Inde- 
pendently of its subsequent advantages, the study of 
the grammar of architecture, or, in other words, the 
elementary practice of architectural drawing, would 
be highly beneficial to the youthful pupils, inasmuch 
as it affords immediate application of the simpler 
principles of geometry; as it forms the hand to 
correctness, the eye to a scrupulous examination of 
forms, and, consequently, implants habits of careful 
deliberation and attention, as well as the seeds of 
taste." 



16 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

The foregoing is from the pen of a celebrated Eng- 
lish author, who holds that " the improvement which 
in the last fifty years has taken place in landscape 
gardening, is, in a great measure, owing to the more 
general adoption of the art of sketching landscapes 
from nature, as a branch of female education. If 
the study of landscape drawing by ladies has led to 
the improvement of landscape gardening, why should 
not the study of architectural drawing on their part 
lead to the improvement of domestic architecture?" 
We cordially indorse the suggestion here offered, and 
lay it before the fair portion of our readers, with the 
hope that it will meet with their hearty approval, 
and lead to a development of female talent in a 
hitherto untried enterprise. We do not mean that it 
will ever be admissible for ladies to assume, to the 
full extent, the practical duties of the architect, such 
as intermixing with the workmen on the scaffold for 
the purpose of directing their operations, but that in 
the field of design and arrangement, they may stand 
on as high ground as their masculine competitors. 

In this work we show the ground-plans, a term 
which may be explained as a horizontal section of a 
building taken at the level of the window-sill, or 
about two feet six inches above the plane of each 
floor. On account of the smallness of the scale on 
which they are drawn, the divisions of these are 
denoted by letters, facilitating convenient reference to 
the text, in which a full explanation is given. The 
elevation of every design is exhibited in perspec- 
tive, by which the appearance of the building when 
erected is more accurately represented than by any 
other manner. Some of the designs we have litho- 



DRAWINGS. 17 

graphed in colors, a pleasing and effective method of 
representation, but less piquant and characteristic 
of architectural precision than the wood engravings, 
to which, by the way, we would call attention as 
indicating the progress of the art in this country. 
We have interspersed a few illustrative details which 
are of much importance to the practical man, and 
only regret that our limits do not permit us to enter 
more largely into that department of the architect's 
labor. 



S&rlio* of & $ifc 



"Near some fair town I'd have a private seat, 
Built uniform, not little nor too great ; 
Better if on a rising ground it stood, — 
On this side fields, on that a neighboring wood; 
A little garden, grateful to the eye, 
Where a oool rivulet runs murmuring by, 
On whose delicious banks a stately row 
Of shady limes or sycamores should grow." 

Nothing is more important in the preliminary 
arrangements for building, than the selection of a 
proper situation. And upon this the question arises, 
what is a proper situation? The answer may be 
embodied in general terms as follows: a situation 
that will not be detrimental to the enjoyment of 
health or comfort, that is easily accessible from a 
public highway, and that commands a view of the 
best scenery which the country affords. 

As our houses are built for the enjoyment of 
comfort, convenience and pleasure, we do injustice to 
ourselves, if we neglect anything conducive to these 
ends. First of all, it is well to note whether the 
neighborhood in which we propose to build bears 
evidence of the healthfulness of its climate by the 
sanitary condition of its inhabitants. If we are satis- 
fied on this point, the next thing to be considered 
is the location of our own particular dwelling ; desir- 
(18) 



\ 

SELECTION OP A SITE. 19 

able results can be insured by the exercise of a well 
cultivated judgment on this too frequently neglected 
point ; indeed, the finger of Nature points unerringly 
to the proper qualifications of a spot intended for 
human habitation, and asserts in the most positive 
language to even the moderately educated percep- 
tion, that the low marsh or foggy "bayou" is not the 
place for the physical comfort of man. 

The advantages of placing a residence on rising 
ground (and by this we mean a gentle elevation, not 
a high hill or mountain) are too numerous and self- 
evident to need extended comment here; but we will 
briefly touch on some of the prominent benefits at- 
tending such a choice. And here, with all defer- 
ence to the pioneers who so nobly laid the founda- 
tion of our present greatness as a people, let us 
remark that their example in the location of habit- 
ations was not such as we could wish the people 
of a more enlightened age to follow. The limpid 
stream, followed to one of many gushing sources, was 
the index that pointed out to the hardy settler his 
place of sojourn. Very convenient indeed was it to 
drink water from the living fountain that bountiful 
Nature had prepared far back in the course of her 
undisputed reign, and no wonder that the rude 
cabin was projected and built on a site within a 
moderate distance of the " spring," whether it issued 
from the steep hill-side or meandered quietly forth 
through the low, damp valley. This accounts for 
the present unhappy location of many residences 
throughout the country; the spot thus consecrated to 
home and its associations is not readily or willingly 
deserted by the succeeding generation who wish to 



20 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

rear a permanent and handsome residence; there are 
charms in that old site and its surroundings that 
cannot be sacrificed for any new scenery, or aban- 
doned on account of malarious emanations or ex- 
posure to the bleak winds of winter. But a day 
of change is coming, and we hail its dawning with 
delight; instead of being entirely concealed or dis- 
agreeably obtruded on the view, the homes of the 
rural population are taking their proper places in 
the landscape in which they neither serve nor gov- 
ern, but form a constituent part. Instead of taking 
the house to the "spring," the "spring" is brought 
to the house, an easy triumph in this scientific 
age. Montgolfier did more than invent the balloon; 
he made as near an approach to the vainly sought 
"perpetual motion" as scientific records can yet 
show: we allude to his invention of the "hydraulic 
ram," an apparatus for impelling water to a great 
height without the application of extrinsic force. 
We know of one of these in the neighborhood of 
West Chester, Pa., that sends a sufficient quantity of 
water to the house for all the domestic purposes of a 
moderate establishment, and supplies the stock-yard 
with water besides, and this through about 1200 feet 
of pipe, the dwelling-house being at an altitude of 
at least 175 feet above the "spring" or source from 
which the water emanates. Another method of 
obtaining a supply of this indispensable article, is 
the sinking of wells; in some sections, however, this 
is attended with considerable cost, and not unfre- 
quently with ill success in the procurement of a 
suitable quality of water; in such a case, the re- 
maining alternative is the collection, in cisterns of 



SELECTION OF A SITE. 21 

suitable dimensions and construction, of the rain-water 
thrown off the roof during the copious winter rains. 
During a late tour in the South, we observed that 
water for domestic purposes is obtained almost ex- 
clusively by this method, and were at first surprised, 
on calling for refreshments, to have set before us a 
goblet of ice water that surpassed in transparency 
the far-famed Schuylkill or Croton. 

We make these remarks to show that important as 
it is to have a natural fountain near the house, it is 
not a sufficient inducement for braving the evils 
arising from a bleak summit exposure or a low un- 
healthy valley. 

Convenience to a line of public travel is a point 
that needs no argument to make its importance 
apparent. It seems to be one of the fixed habits of 
mankind, to locate near the wayside, and there is 
no demand for any change rendered necessary by 
the advancement of society. The progress of public 
improvement generally, and the facilities afforded by 
railroad and steamboat for travel and the transporta- 
tion of commodities, are hastening the day when 
stage-coaches and roadr-wagona will be forgotten, and 
in which the once well beaten highway will be but 
comparatively an obscure by-way. But the more per- 
manent public thoroughfares, the river and the rail- 
road, stand in no danger of such abandonment; and 
in selecting a country home, we should assert as a 
fixed condition that a river or railroad must be con- 
venient, and within view, if possible. We build 
not for ourselves alone; the stranger passing by, 
whether he be countryman or foreigner, or whether 
he travels by coach, boat, or car, is delighted by the 



22 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

sure tokens of the influence of social progress exhib- 
ited in the landscape dotted with houses, and that 
delight is infinitely increased by the taste manifested 
in the location of those houses with relation to sur- 
rounding scenery. It then should be borne in mind 
that a country house is built to be seen, and after the 
ruling principle of salubrity of air and convenience 
of access, this consideration is secondary in import- 
ance only to the fact that it is to see from; to be con- 
ducive to the enjoyment of its inmates by being so 
situated and arranged as to afford the most happy 
prospect of the beauties of the surrounding country, 
for each individual landscape has its own peculiar 
beauties, if we only take the pains to seek them from 
,a proper point of view. Now, although no specific 
rules can be given, each particular section of country 
requiring for itself a local investigation, attention to 
the following hints may be profitable. 

Avoid, as you would a pestilence, all low, damp 
situations; the effluvia from such are injurious to 
health in all seasons; proper drainage being if not 
entirely impeded, greatly embarrassed, the quantity 
of malarious exhalation is greatly increased by the 
consequent accumulations of foul matter. 

Never build in the heart of a thick clustered wood, 
where the influence of the sun would only prevail a 
few hours of each day. A wood on the north or 
northeast side is admissible, and even to be sought 
for shelter; but this should be as clear as pos- 
sible from the under-growth of noxious plants so 
common in the more fertile lands of the United 
States. A few shade trees tastefully disposed are a 
desideratum, but the influence of thick shade close 



SELECTION OP A SITE. 23 

around a house, whether natural or artificial, tends 
to humidity and the generation and retention of 
vapors, alike injurious to the durability of the house 
and the health of its inmates. It fosters dampness 
in the walls promotive of chilly interiors, discolored 
paper, loosened plaster, decayed timbers, and a train 
of evils ending in premature decay. Another reason 
for not surrounding a house closely with thick foliage, 
is its consequent concealment from the public eye. 
Every building, and particularly every human dwell- 
ing, deserves to occupy a position in its particular 
landscape in proportion to the pretension it makes as 
the offspring of human effort. To the finest produc- 
tion of art should be accorded the most prominence, 
while those of less importance should be compara- 
tively quiet in asserting their claims to notice, and, 
collectively, all should be in consonance with and in 
subordination to the natural aspect of the country. 

The summit of a mountain or high hill is to be 
sedulously avoided, on account of the prevalence and 
force of bleak winds, and the greater difficulty of 
access. To some very aspiring and imaginative peo- 
ple these reasons may be insufficient; and indeed we 
must confess that the pleasure derived from the occu- 
pancy of a summit residence when nature is clothed 
with the verdure of spring, the gay flowers of summer, 
or the melancholy autumnal "sere and yellow leaf," 
is scarcely outbalanced by the unmitigated rigor of 
the winter winds, or the probable cost of approach. 
To look upon a great expanse of country stretched 
out before and around you, bounded by the blue hori- 
zon; to contemplate the endless variety of scenery, 
and the different effects of light and shade on the 



24 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

verdant wood, the cultivated field, and the silvery 
winding stream, are not only sources of superior pleas- 
ure, but have a tendency to an elevation of mind that 
no effort of art can rival. But a gentle eminence 
should be preferred. Far enough above the streams 
or marshes of the vicinity to be exempt from the 
heaviest exhalations of injurious tendency, and shel- 
tered by high grounds or timber on the northern 
aspect, would be our beau ideal for a site, on the prin- 
ciples we have enunciated. Then let us be within a 
few hours' drive of some railroad or navigable river. 
Next, seek the best possible view of the landscape 
around us; if not a navigable river, let us have in 
view a running brook to glitter in the morning or 
evening sun on its "clear winding way to the sea," 
and as great a variety of field and forest as can be 
brought within the scope of vision. We must see, 
too, as many of our neighbors as possible, and allow 
them to see us; in short, we must, in a land like ours, 
where equality is an element of society, strive to 
make ourselves agreeable without being immodest, 
and contribute our share to the stock of universal 
advancement with an exhibition of judgment and 
taste, and without manifestation of either extrav- 
agance or parsimony. 



3?*nta4$ ott $%U. 



When we speak of a building being in the Grecian, 
Italian, Gothic, or any of the numerous well-known 
*u&-styles, we mean that the spirit rather than the 
sum total of the peculiarities of that style has been 
seized upon and infused into it. No design in this 
work can be pointed out as a fac-simile of any ancient 
or foreign specimen of architecture; but ancient 
forms and details have too long appealed to the tastes 
or prejudices of mankind for the architect to dream 
of their abandonment. They have been consecrated 
to architecture by long-continued use and the admi- 
ration of by-gone ages ; and, so far as their existence 
depends on intrinsic beauty of form and the laws of 
proportion, they are bound to be immortal. The 
orator or poet would not be more culpable for laying 
aside the teachings of the past than would the archi- 
tect for neglecting the precedents set before him in 
the works of the ancient masters. Each might sub- 
stitute a chimera of his own, and the failure of all 
would be alike pitiable. Instead of eloquence and 
poetry, the listening audience would be fed on the 
rudiments of an unintelligible language; and instead 
of a pleasing combination of forms resulting in the 
most happy effects, unmeaning piles of brick and 
stone at every step would greet our vision. 

(25) 



26 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

By the adoption of some one of the known modes 
or styles of building, the structure is invested with 
an interest that it would not otherwise possess. The 
popular mind is easily reached through a medium 
combining beauty of aspect with antiquity of origin; 
it is affected by an appreciation of the present inter- 
woven with a veneration for the past. Hence the 
architect who studies the ancients, to imbibe the spirit 
of their performances rather than to follow them ser- 
vilely through beauty and deformity, is certain to be 
most successful in the production of good designs for 
the present day. 

The Gothic or pointed style, and the Grecian or 
horizontal style, are the types of the two great ele- 
ments of architectural design. All the divisions and 
subdivisions that figure so largely on the page of the 
historian and tourist are merely so many petrified 
phases of national practice at a given time, handed 
down to us under the name of the nation or people 
under whose auspices they assumed their distinguish- 
ing peculiarities. It is, however, foreign to our pres- 
ent purpose to trace any of these to their fountain 
head, and show how, step by step, they reached their 
highest perfection, or how, in the hands of skillful 
masters, they were combined with each other to 
astonish and delight the art world : it is enough to 
remark, that the American architect has a living 
source of satisfaction in the thought that it is possible 
for him to aid in setting a national stamp on the 
architecture of his country. That this is possible, a 
convincing proof is furnished to our hand in "beauti- 
ful Venice, the bride of the sea." Look for a moment 
at the Church of St. Mark. Soman, the legitimate 



REMARKS ON STYLE. 27 

descendant of Grecian art, but not less national, had 
reached its climax, and the fountain of Gothic beauty 
seemed exhausted, when lo ! we see a structure arise 
bearing the impress of Roman and Gothic art har- 
moniously blended, and yet developing a character so 
clearly and decidedly its own, that none have ven- 
tured to gainsay or question its nationality. 

Grecian architecture and its lineal successors, 
Roman and Italian, are imbued with a spirit of re- 
pose and quietness that contrast powerfully with the 
lively character of the Gothic mode. The origin of 
this apparent antagonism is attributable to the preva- 
lence of horizontal lines in the former and of vertical 
in the latter. That these can be reconciled to each 
other with happy effect, is verified in the example 
alluded to, as well as in the famous Milan Cathedral 
and many contemporary buildings. But the accom- 
plishment of such a feat is the highest evidence of 
artistic skill that an architect can stamp on the face 
of his performance : few dare it, and of the few, not 
a moiety can be said to be successful. 

Domestic architecture in ancient nations seems to 
have been neglected, or at least to have occupied but 
an inferior position. While temple after temple was 
reared to their gods, and tomb and triumphal arch to 
their heroes and kings, the Grecian and Roman peo- 
ple lived in hovels. The same may be said of the 
people of Britain and the Continent during the palmy 
days of Gothic art. As the equality of mankind 
approaches nearer to being acknowledged as a 
fixed element in human society, we see a change 
taking place, and for centuries back the masses have 
been gaining ground on the aristocracy. And when 



28 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

the dwelling of the private citizen finally became a 
subject for the display of the taste and genius of the 
architect, he naturally enough looked to the most 
magnificent specimens of ancient or contemporary pub- 
lic architecture for his guide in the selection of forms 
and details; and as a consequence, we see domestic 
buildings, even down to modern times, wearing the 
exact dress of the heathen temple, or the livery of 
the medieval church or castle. By degrees, however, 
domestic architecture is improving, and that improve- 
ment is accelerated by copying nothing ancient or 
foreign further than its application is in strict conso- 
nance with the requirements of domestic life. In 
public buildings, we may, if we choose, with some 
degree of propriety and prospect of success, copy the 
Grecian or Roman temple, or the Gothic cathedral; 
but for the citizen's home, the introduction of details 
derived from those sources presupposes their entire 
subordination to the domestic character of the build- 
ing of which they are to form a part. What we mean 
to say is, that architectural style should never seem 
to rule out the expression of the end in view. This 
may be more fully explained by the following inci- 
dent: In passing by a fine residence, the location of 
which we need not name, a friend inquired whether 
it was a church, college, or court-house; which we 
were not able to answer until we approached close 
enough to determine by the drapery in the windows 
that it was a dwelling-house. It was a classic build- 
ing and a fine specimen of architecture; but was it 
domestic architecture? Some one has very well said 
that the ancient practice should be treated as a ser- 
vant, not as a master. Without doubt the gentlemanly 



BEMABKS ON STYLE. 29 

proprietor of the classic house above spoken of, would 
have scorned to receive from the painter's hand the 
picture of Apollo as his own portrait, and yet he has 
permitted his architect to disguise, under the sem- 
blance of a heathen temple, the real character of his 
place of residence, although one is not more at vari- 
ance with the true spirit of living art than the other. 

Without condemning what has been done, and with 
great hopes for the future of rural building, we pass 
sentence on servile imitation as being unworthy of the 
genius and spirit of the American people. There is an 
element of originality in American enterprise that 
seems to have slumbered in nothing more than in the 
pursuit of architecture as a fine art, and once fully 
awakened to the importance of its cultivation, it is 
destined to set its mark high in the record of nations. 
But this can only be done by the application of the 
best talent the country can afford, irrespective of the 
profits likely to accrue to the leaders of the profession. 
So long as the uneducated builder is permitted to take 
the lead in designing and constructing our edifices, to 
the exclusion of the true architect, so long must we 
fall short of the high standard within our reach. 

Admiration of ancient forms and details leads the 
uncultivated judgment to apply them without regard 
to order or congruity, and the result is always offen- 
sive to the refined perception of the true artist. The 
constituent elements of style are proportion, beauty 
of form, harmony of arrangement, and unity of effect; 
without these, no style can exist, nor can a building 
be said to be an architectural composition in which 
any of these elements are neglected. 

But first of all, in domestic structures let attention 



30 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

be paid to unity ; that is, the production of a whole, and 
the expression of the end in view, the latter being 
manifested by chimney -tops, verandas, entrance- 
ways, windows, etc., the absence or concealment of 
any of these features being destructive to the domes- 
tic character of the building. Then let the propor- 
tion of parts be considered, for without this no real 
satisfaction will be derived from the inspectioij. of a 
building of any kind. Whatever details are intro- 
duced of an ornamental character should be the best> 
chosen with regard to gracefulness of form, never so 
elaborate as to produce a striking contrast with larger 
masses of plain surface, but culminating in extreme 
points or exhibited lines of construction, as in nature 
the flowers grow not on the stalk but on the branches. 
Harmony expresses the radical idea conveyed by 
the term as employed in musical composition, and its 
importance cannot better be illustrated than by the 
momentary violation of its principles in the choir or 
orchestra. Mr. Loudon says the term is "transferred 
from music to architecture, and implies such a com- 
position of lines and forms as will produce a powerful, 
a varied, and an agreeable whole. Where great con- 
trasts exist among the parts, and yet all of them are 
in accord, the effect is harmony," and "harmony there- 
fore supposes unity, contrast, variety, order, propor- 
tion, and various other subordinate beauties. Not- 
withstanding this, however, harmony in architecture 
as in music may exist independently of ornament or 
of any distinctive character." 



MnU an €m*lmdim. 



From the importance of good walls as a primary 
demand in all buildings, it follows that the consider- 
ation of the quality of materials of which they are 
composed, as well as the manner in which the* con- 
junction or adhesion of parts can be most thoroughly 
effected, is a matter of no small consequence. 

Stone. — Being a natural production, and not only 
adapted to the requirements of building with but 
little preparation, but from its nature conducive to 
the permanency of artificial structures, stone, as an 
element of wall building, is entitled to the first rank, 
and therefore to early notice. Without going into a 
geological disquisition on the subject, we may speak 
of the relative value of different kinds of stone ; not 
always with the certainty we could wish, from the 
fact that time enough has not elapsed since an in- 
terest has been awakened to the vast importance of 
knowing the qualities of the stone employed. Ex- 
perience -seems to be the best test; although the 
science of chemistry may be sufficient for the geologist, 
the architect is better satisfied with the proofs of 
time. 

Granite, according to geology the primary rock, 
exists in great abundance in this country, and has 

(31) 



32 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

already been employed to a great extent for building 
purposes. The best specimens within our knowledge 
of granite for public buildings are from the quarries 
of Quincy and Fall River, Mass. ; but there are qual- 
ities of lighter cast, and therefore better adapted to 
rural architecture, found in various parts of the coun- 
try, of which the quarries at Lieperville, Pa., furnish 
an instance. 

The elemental formation of granite renders it of 
great value in point of durability, and it is recom* 
mended for foundations preferably to all other kinds 
of stone. It may be known by its granular structure, 
from which it takes its name: its component parts 
being quartz, mica, and feldspar, distinctly or con* 
fusedly blended together. It is very easily worked 
into the rougher kinds of masonry, but does not admit 
of fine polish or finely-cut mouldings. It may be em- 
ployed in rural buildings approaching the rustic char- 
acter; but is not highly commended, on account of 
the somber aspect communicated by its color. 

Sandstone and limestone are abundant in the Uni- 
ted States, but the many available qualities of each 
render a detailed notice of them entirely out of the 
question. The absorbent nature of sandstone, and 
the consequent liability to suffer from the effect of 
heat and cold, has rendered its durability a matter 
of some doubt; but we can point to numerous exam- 
ples where it has stood the test of climate for years, 
and from present appearances may stand for genera- 
tions. 

The light-brown sandstone of Connecticut and New. 
Jersey, the soft, light-gray stone of Cincinnati, and 
the warmer-tinted stone of Mount Joliet, 111., take the 



HINTS ON CONSTRUCTION. 33 

first rank as valuable and agreeable materials for 
rural building. All these have an excellent effect 
in combination with surrounding verdure, are easily 
wrought, and exhibit to the best advantage the exe- 
cution of ornament. We should not neglect to notice 
the stone imported from Nova Scotia, known under 
the name of "Pictou," or Acadia freestone. Latterly 
this stone has been extensively used in the vicinity 
of Philadelphia, and aside from its delightful shade 
of color, is recommended as a durable material. No- 
thing could be more suitable for the refined architec- 
ture of a suburban villa. 

Of limestones, those of Vermont, Pennsylvania, and 
Missouri are the best known, and are all extensively 
employed in building in their respective localities. 
Where the color approximates light-bluish gray, as it 
does in the Pennsylvania specimens, the effect is very 
pleasing; but the others are so white as to be ob- 
jectionable for rural buildings, unless the mass of the 
building is kept in subjection by the influence of 
foliage. 

The principal objection that has been urged against 
stone houses, is that they are always damp. This is 
true, as they are usually constructed without any at- 
tention «to the possibility of preventing this fruitful 
source of calamity. Stone walls having their foun- 
dations in damp soil, will inevitably be damp from 
capillary attraction, common lime mortar forming no 
impediment to the upward passage of moisture into 
the main wall of the house, which as a consequence 
will seldom be quite dry. The most effectual remedy 
for this is to build the under-ground portion of the 
walls with mortar made of Rosendale or any similar 



34 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

cement. The interior apartments of a house in which 
the plaster is laid immediately on the stone walls 
must always be more or less damp, because all stone 
is in some degree pervious to water, and will therefore 
transmit the dampness from without, and because, the 
inner surface of the wall, maintaining nearly the same 
temperature as the outer, condenses, or, as it were, ex- 
tracts the moisture from the atmosphere of tthe apart- 
ments. Two methods are offered for the prevention 
of this, both depending on the intervention of a hol- 
low space for the circulation of air. The first is to 
firr-off the plastering with vertical wall strips; the 
second, to form a hollow wall by building up a single 
thickness of brick on the inside, and connecting it 
with the stone wall while in the course of erection. 

With regard to the effect of the natural color of 
stone employed in the external surface of- houses, a 
late writer has the following very pertinent remarks : 
"In choosing stone as a material for building, not only 
should the size of the house be considered — the more 
dignified and grave character of the mansion allowing 
with good effect the employment of a much darker 
stone than the simple and more cheerful character of 
the small cottage — but the expression of the style of 
architecture should also be considered. A light and 
cheerful villa, composed in the Italian or Venetian 
style, would almost lose its expression of cheerfulness 
if built in dark-blue limestone, while a Gothic villa 
or mansion of large size would have its antique char- 
acter supported and developed by such a material. 
A little reflection will convince any observing person 
of taste, that the odor of a stone building has a great 
deal to do with its expression, and with the effect it 



HINTS ON CONSTRUCTION. 35 

has upon our feelings; and that the outward hue 
which the material employed will force the edifice 
forever after to represent to the eye, is a point worthy 
of very serious consideration." 

Brick. — In portions of the country where stone is 
not easily obtainable, it becomes necessary to substitute 
brick. While these make a firm, durable, and excel- 
lent wall, they are not so satisfactory as stone in an 
architectural point of view for country houses ; yet 
by various expedients* the principal objection to the 
use of bricks in rural building, to wit, their harsh- 
ness of color, is overcome. The objection to stone on 
the score of internal dampness may be urged with 
equal force against brick, and the same remedies are 
found necessary. 

In various parts of Europe, it has long been the 
practice to build hollow walls, and it is now admitted 
to be the best mode of building brick houses. It 
gives a greater amount of strength with an equal 
quantity of brick and mortar; as a preventive of 
dampness, dispenses with the necessity of the usual 
practice of firring-off with wood; saves the cost of 
lathing the interior walls, the plaster being laid 
directly on the inner face of the brick-work. It is 
alleged, however, and perhaps with some foundation 
in truth, that in warm, Southern climates, the wood- 
firring is the best preventive. Whatever theories 
may be advanced on the subject, experience must be 
admitted as the most satisfactory test, and the supe- 
riority of the hollow wall over the wood-firring, in 
point of durability and exemption from the dangers 
of fire, must give way to the imperative demand for 
dryness in dwelling apartments. 



36 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



In fig. 1, A represents a 16-inch wall, the hollow 
space being 4 inches. The outer section of the wall 
is a double course of bricks, and the inner a single 
course, connected to the former by the tie-brick a. 




Fie. 1.— Hollow 16-htoh Wall. 



In the second course of this wall, B, the position of 
the tie-brick, is changed to 6, increasing the strength 
of the wall by breaking the joints. The position of 
the tie-bricks will thus be alternated throughout the 
whole height of the wall. Laying every alternate 
course with headers, as shown at B, is favorable to 
strength, but is not admissible unless the exterior is 



HINTS ON CONSTRUCTION. 37 

to be stuccoed or cemented. When to be left smooth 
for coloring or painting, stretchers, as shown at C and 
D, are preferable for the outside of the wall. The 
bond is then formed by splitting the bricks of the 
outer course as at A, fig. 2, and completing the thick- 
ness with a course -. 



of three-quarter tie- 
bricks, or cutting ^Miwi^^m iS 
the corners of the .___ — — ^ — ^_^ 

stretchers and lay- \^^^^V^^^^^'\ I 

ing the tie-brick dia- ' - *-= — ' ■* — 1 — ' 

gonally, as at B, fig. 



B 
Fig. 2.—8wmn Bom>. 



2. Either of these methods apply more satisfactorily 
to a solid 12-inch wall. 




lie. &— Hollow 12-ihch Wall. 



The hollow 12-inch wall shown at fig. 3 is a 
simple and cheap expedient where a moderate height 
of wall is required, without the necessity of support- 
ing a great weight. By the addition of another brick 
on the outside, a 16-inch wall is attained, but not so 
highly recommended as that shown at fig. 1. The 
dotted lines show the position of the bricks b and d 
in the next course, which, lapping on a and c, give 
the necessary bond. 

Earthen Walls. — In districts such as our West- 
ern prairies, where neither wood, stone, nor bricks are 
easily procured, the subject of building with unburnt 
bricks or pisS is worthy of considerable attention. 
In Europe, South America, and Mexico this mode of 



38 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

building has been extensively practiced, and with 
success. It is well known that in portions of the 
former country, buildings two hundred years old are 
found in a good state of preservation. Here is the 
account given by Mr. Denson, an English author; of 
the manner of building these walls in Cambridgeshire, 
England. 

"After a laborer has dug a sufficient quantity of 
clay for his purpose, he works it up with straw; he 
is then provided with a frame eighteen inches in 
length, six deep, and from nine to twelve inches in 
width. In this frame he forms his lumps in the same 
manner that a brick-maker forms his bricks; they are 
then packed up to dry by the weather; that done, 
they are fit for use as a substitute for bricks. On 
laying the foundation of a cottage, a few layers of 
bricks are necessary to prevent the lumps from con- 
tracting a damp from the earth. The fire-place is 
lined, and the oven is built with bricks. I have 
known cottagers, where they could get the grant of a 
piece of ground to build on for themselves, erect a 
cottage of this description at a cost of from £15 to 
£30. I examined one that was nearly completed, of 
a superior order: it contained two good lower rooms 
and a chamber, and was neatly thatched with straw. 
It is a warm, firm, and comfortable building, and my 
opinion is that it will last for centuries. The lumps 
are laid with mortar, they are then plastered, and on 
the outside rough-cast, which is done by throwing a 
mixture of water, lime, and small stones against the 
walls before the plaster is dry, which gives them a 
very handsome appearance." 

Almost any kind of clay will answer for this pur- 



HINTS ON CONSTRUCTION. 39 

pose; the tempering is easily accomplished by tread- 
ing it with cattle, the straw being added while the 
mixing is going on. The most convenient and eco- 
nomical size for these unburnt bricks is undoubtedly 
less than given in thfe above extract, viz., one foot 
long, six inches wide, and four inches thick. The 
exterior walls of a cottage built in this way may be 
two bricks or twelve inches thick; all short partitions 
not over one story high may be six inches or one 
brick in thickness; in both cases there is an opportu- 
nity for perfect bond. All the window and door 
frames should be made of stout two-inch plank, and 
inserted as the building goes up; these give additional 
strength to the wall, and being made to correspond 
with the thickness of the wall, give opportunity for 
covering the joints with both inner and outer casing. 
Stone lintels and sills are preferable, but as they are 
not likely to be had conveniently in a section where 
this mode becomes necessary, a piece of ordinary 
three by twelve inch joist, cut a foot longer than the 
width of opening, may be inserted as a substitute. 
The best roof for this species of cottage is made with 
shingles; some have asserted that thatch may be sub- 
stituted, but we have no unity with the idea, and 
would only assent to it when the possibility of pro- 
curing a superior article is out of the question. The 
projection of roof ought not in any case to be less 
than two feet, so as to afford protection to the walls 
from rains. 

Stucco. — An expedient for rendering either rough 
stone or brick walls pleasant to the eye is found in 
stuccoing; that is, external plastering. An argument 
against stucco is, that it is an architectural fiction; 



40 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

but this consideration, so important in the eyes of the 
architect, is outweighed by the practical advantages 
gained by its use. Nor are these alone embraced 
in the facility with which the asperities of a stone 
or brick surface are concealed, or the opportunity 
afforded to portray a resemblance to fine range-work. 
A coat of stucco protects the wall and enhances the 
warmth of the building, and its color can be modified 
at any stage, at a very slight cost, to suit the taste of 
the proprietor ; and it becomes, therefore, to all who 
wish to procure the greatest amount of beauty and 
comfort at a minimum expenditure, a material of no 
small value. 

We are aware that there exists a great prejudice 
in this country, in the minds of both architects and 
others, against the use of stucco, but that it is strictly 
just, seems scarcely supported by facts; no doubt but 
the art, practiced by badly qualified mechanics, has 
suffered much depreciation in consequence, in the 
eyes of the public; but when we remember that a 
great proportion of the finest modern buildings in 
Europe are built of brick and stucco, we ought to 
be incited to pay attention to the true secret of 
success. It is, after all, very simple. Lime of the 
best quality, fresh from the kiln, dry-slaked (that is, 
not slaked to a paste) and screened by a fine sieve 
or inclined screen, is the first essential ingredient. 
After thoroughly washing the sharpest sand that 
can be procured, to remove all particles of loam or 
clay, mix it with the lime in powder, in the propor- 
tion of two parts aand to one of lime; then add water, 
and temper it flwrougMy, and the stucco is ready for 
laying on. Care must be taken to remove with a 



HINTS ON CONSTRUCTION. 41 

stiff brush or broom all particles of loose dirt, mortar, 
etc., that might otherwise interfere with the adhe- 
sion of the stucco. Apply the mortar in two coats, 
the latter before the former is thoroughly dry; and 
the permanency of the color will be greatly en- 
hanced if the wash by which it is communicated 
is put on immediately, so as to set with the stucco, 
the surface of the latter being floated up to a true 
surface. 

A very durable and cheap species of external plas- 
tering, extensively used in Eastern Pennsylvania, is 
that known as "rough-cast," a term sometimes care- 
lessly applied to the stucco above described, but dif- 
fering from it in finish. The second coat is laid on 
as evenly as possible mthout floating, and a workman 
follows the plasterer, with his trowel in one hand, 
splashing on the rough-cast on the fresh surface of 
the mortar, and brush in the other, by which the 
work is completed. The ingredients of rough-cast 
are pure, fresh-slaked lime and well-washed, sharp 
sand; these are mixed in a large tub of water until 
the whole is in a semi-fluid state. A little coloring 
matter, yellow ochre, or some pigment of similar 
cast, to vary the color from the glaring whiteness of 
lime, may be incorporated in the mixture. 

We have seen houses in Pennsylvania done in this 
manner that have stood from eighty to a hundred 
years, the external plastering bearing no evidence of 
yielding or displacement, but to all appearance as per- 
manent and likely to withstand the effects of time as 
the stone wall to which it adhered. 

To these remarks on stuccoing, we would add, that 
every precaution should be taken to prevent the walls 



42 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



from becoming saturated with water at the top ; this 
can be provided against by giving a considerable roof- 
projection, and exercising due care in the construction 
of gutters. 

Wood. — Owing to the great abundance of wood 
and its consequent cheapness throughout the Union, 
it will be employed for generations to come for the 
skeleton as well as the finish of moderately expensive 
dwelling-houses. The consideration of its importance 
as the basis of a system of building, so extensively 
practiced as to embrace three-fourths of all the dwell- 
ing-houses in the great West, (and if we leave out 
the cities and towns, nine-tenths,) becomes a point of 
vital interest to the Western builder. Building of 
wood becomes a matter of necessity from the absence 
of other available material, and 
being so, it is the business of the 
builder to cast about for the best 
method of treatment. The prac- 
tice of many carpenters, who 
proceed rapidly at the expense 
of sound building, cannot be too 
severely reprobated. We will 
notice a few points in which this 
is done. We have seen joists, 
for instance, laid on the foun- 
dation-wall totally disconnected 
with the sill, as at A, fig. 4, in- 
stead of being framed in, as at B. 
A moment's thought will show 
any one the error of the method 
at A. The slightest settlement of the sill — and it is 
much more liable to settlement than the floor, from 



i_r 



JOIST 



JOIST 




IW.4. 



HINTS ON CONSTRUCTION. 43 

the greater weight upon it — deranges the relationship 
between the floor and plastering, much to the injury 
of the latter. It is evident that the danger of this is 
obviated by the method shown at B, all being firmly 
tenoned into the sill, and about one-third of the num- 
ber pinned at each end; by the insertion of a board 
under the ends of the joists, the bearing of the wooden 
superstructure .is equalized on the wall, and whatever 
settlement takes place is gradually communicated to 
the whole without the derangement of parts. 

Another point of faulty construction is seen in the 
neglect to insert a suitable ridge-beam in the con- 
struction of half-stories; the consequence of which is 
the sides of the building are distended by the thrust 
of the rafters, the greatest deviation from a straight 
line being in the middle of the length, or at the 
greatest distance from any transverse tie. Collar- 
beams will not prevent this, unless placed below the 
middle of the rafter, and the nearer they are placed 
to the foot of the rafter, the greater their efficiency. 
But the simplest remedy is to support the ridge of 
the roof with a longitudinal bearer, commonly termed 
a ridge-plate, say three by ten or fourteen inches in 
a span of from fourteen to twenty-four feet; in a 
greater span than this, the bearer should be trussed 
and bolted. This method of roof-construction is ap- 
plicable to all half-8torie8 y whether the walls be stone, 
brick, or wood. 

A great deal of judgment is necessary in the regu- 
lation of dimensions of timber according to the several 
offices they have to perform. No specific rules can 
be given, but a few hints may not be amiss to the 
builder who seeks soundness of construction com- 
bined with economy. 



44 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

All timbers whose principal office is to sustain a 
vertical pressure, such as joists, beams, rafters, etc., 
should have their greatest dimension in depth. Thus, 
we should prefer a joist 2i by 12 inches, to one 3 by 
10 inches, although their sectional areas are equal; 
and a 2 by 14 inch joist is stronger than either in 
wood of ordinary tenacity and firmness, but requires 
bridging in shorter divisions. Corner-posts should be 
square : sills resting on walls may approximate nearly 
to that form, 9 and 10 by 12 being the preferable 
size; studding should be 2 J by 5, 6, or 8, in propor- 
tion to the magnitude of the structure in which they 
are employed. It was formerly the custom to use 3 
by 4 studding for very good houses; but aside from 
the disadvantage of these dimensions in point of 
strength, the limited space thereby given for the 
thickness of sash and blinds is a serious objection ; it 
is painful to see the windows of a house flush with 
the face of the weather-boarding, and it is equally 
painful to see them on a line with the plastering in- 
side. Whatever thickness, then, can be given to the 
walls without creating expense, must be an obvious 
advantage, and we should even prefer, where econ- 
omy was a ruling consideration, 2 by 6 inch studding 
to 3 by 4 inch, the cost of these being equal. With 
regard to bracing, it should ever be borne in mind 
that the greater the "run" of the brace or strut (i.e. 
the distance from the angle formed by the junction 
of the timbers braced) the more effectual will the 
brace perform its office. The only limit to this is 
set by the deflection or sagging of the timber em- 
ployed for bracing, for which a remedy may be found 
in counter-bracing; but it seldom occurs that struts 
of so great a length are required. 



HINTS ON CONSTRUCTION. 



45 



(-GS 



BEARER 



There is a system practiced in the West termed 
balloon framing, of which we may give a brief notice; 
it is a very rapid and convenient method of erecting 
temporary buildings, and some of its advocates hold 
that it is equal if not superior to the old method. 
In the first place, the studding is cut to extend the 
full height of two stories : the manner of supporting 
the second floor of joists, however, is the chief pecu- 
liarity. This will be understood by reference to fig. 
5, where A shows how 
the bearer, a piece of 
plank about 2 by 6 
inches, is notched into 
the studding on the 
inner face; a notch of 
half an inch in depth 
gives the joist a hold 
on this bearer, which is 
firmly spiked to every 
stud; B shows the end 
of joists and face of 
bearer. Fig. 6 repre- 
sents the old method : 
A shows a section of 
the beam or bearer 



i 



Tig. 6«— Balloo* Mbthod. 



BEARER 



\\ 



fig. 6^- Old Mirao*. 



into which the upper and lower studding are tenoned 
and pinned, and B the face of the same. We are not 
inclined to favor the balloon system for first-class 
wooden dwellings, but believe it may be resorted to 
with advantage in the temporary class of residences 
that spring up as the first growth of a new country. 
The present cheapness of spikes and nails and the 
facility of construction are much in its favor. Some- 

4 



46 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



times the bottom sill of such a structure is formed 
by spiking two joists on the studding, the outside one 
being sunk flush, as in fig. 7. 

As to the various modes of covering the 
framework of wooden houses, much rhetoric 
has been expended to show that the perpendicu- 

Ular method of boarding is superior to the hori- 
zontal, and vice-versa; but each method has its 
^ 7 merits, and we approve of the use of either, reg- 
ulated by the style and pretensions of the build- 
ing rather than by any difference in intrinsic value. 
The ordinary method of putting on the perpendicular 
boarding, is to cover the joint formed by the meeting 
of every two boards, as shown at A, fig. 8. A method 
preferable to this, but rather more expensive, is shown 
at B. The battens, 2 J inches thick, and rebated out 



mmmmmmsMvm 








Vxo. 8^-Batthto. 



to thickness of the boarding, are nailed to the hori- 
zontal ties, confining the boards so as to prevent the 
necessity of driving nails through them, which is a 
point of importance, as their splitting by shrinkage 
is rendered impossible. 

It must be acknowledged that the vertical is a 
truthful method of placing weather-boarding : it is in- 
dicative of the nature of the material, and is so far 



HINTS ON CONSTRUCTION. 



47 



entitled to regard, but it must also be admitted that 
it would be out of place applied to a residence in the 
Italian style. For a cottage of moderate cost and 
pretensions, particularly if that cottage have high- 
pitched roof, and a consequent leaning toward the 
Gothic style, we would give it a decided preference. 

There are several methods of putting on the hori- 
zontal boarding: the best of these is what is termed 
the plow and drop method, in which each edge of 
the board has a groove sunk of one-third the thick- 
ness of the board; the manner of putting it on is 
represented at A, fig. 9. The method is shown at B, 
in which the lower edge of each board 
is rebated to one-half its thickness, and 
this rebate rests on the upper edge of 
the board below. Another method, 
which we believe has been patented, is 
to slit, by a circular saw, boards of 11 
inches thickness and 5 inches wide, 
thus making two thicknesses, of which 
one edge of each shall be three-eighths, 
and the other edge a half-inch thick. 
These are put on with six-penny nails, 
with the thick edge downward, as 
shown at C. 

Roof. — Whatever may be said regarding the lia- 
bility to early decay in shingles, it is nevertheless a 
fixed fact that they must form, for generations to 
come, a large proportion of the roofing material used 
in this country, at least for the cheaper class of build- 
ings. A shingle roof seems to be the natural cover 
for a wooden house; of good quality it is equally 
admissible, in an architectural view, for a stone or 



i 




i 


f: 

J. i 
f i 


I I 
1 f 


I 


u 

A 


I I 

f ( 

Bl 


C 



Fra.9. 

WlATHZB-BOABSnra. 



48 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



brick house. There are some instances, however, of 
exceptions to its application to wooden buildings, 
arising from other considerations: for instance, in the 
neighborhood of New Orleans, where slates are pre- 
ferred on all classes of houses, owing to the greater 
purity of the water thrown off by a slate roof, — an 
item of importance, where the clouds furnish the 
water for domestic uses; being imported directly from 
Wales as ballast, their cost does not much exceed 
that of shingles. 

Slate roofing is a branch of growing importance, 
and deservedly so. Whatever the style of building, 
if the limits of intended outlay will admit it, we are 
favorable to its application. Slates of different colors 
are used in the same roof, with excellent effect; a 




L 


) 


?! 


?! 


y 


[. 



Kg. 10. 



Vko. 11. 



variation of form arrests the eye still more, and gives 
additional beauty to the combination. A shingle 





Flo. 12. 



Fro. 13. 



roof in which some attention has been paid to orna- 
mental effect, is creative of a feeling in the mind of 



HINTS ON CONSTRUCTION. 



49 



n 








m 



Fro. 14. 



the beholder that something more has been attempted 
than the mere necessity of construction, and that the 
result is worthy of the attempt. 
We give a few examples of vari- 
ous patterns for shingles or slate, 
fig. 10 to fig. 14, the last being 
one of many pleasing combina- 
tions that may be made; it is 
worthy of observation that the 
application of this method of 
roof ornament is very extended, 
and only ceases when the roof 
approaches the minimum pitch for the use of slate or 
shingles. 

Of the numerous available slate quarries in the 
United States, those of Pennsylvania and Vermont 
are the principal: the former affords the dark slate, 
with but very little variety of shade; the latter has 
red, purple, and green, all of excellent quality for 
working and durability. 

Tin is a well-known and extensively used roofing 
material, and for low-pitched roofs seems preferable to 
anything that has yet been invented as a substitute. 
It should always be well painted before it is laid; ex- 
perience has proved red-lead to be the most efficient 
coating that has yet been discovered. Galvanized 
iron is used to some extent, but being more expensive 
than tin, and of doubtful superiority, it cannot be so 
highly recommended for general use; iron that has 
not gone through this process, corrodes so rapidly as 
to be entirely unavailable, unless care is taken to 
keep it thoroughly painted, the expense of which is 
almost equivalent to a prohibition of its use. Lead 



50 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

makes a good roof in northern latitudes, but we a*e 
assured is almost utterly worthless in the South, 
owing to the action of the climate upon it. Copper 
is an excellent material for valleys, gutters, etc., but 
is subject to so much expansion and contraction from 
the changes of weather, as to render it almost value- 
less for a large area of roof. 

Of late years a great deal of attention has been 
given to various methods of roofing, brought forward 
and held up to public notice as cheap and durable 
substitutes for tin; these have met with more or less 
popular favor as their cheapness seemed to entitle 
them to the consideration of the economist, but they 
are one by one disappearing, perhaps to be forgotten, 
or only to be remembered when some new invention 
of the kind makes its appearance. Warren's Patent 
Gravel Roofing is the only one within our knowledge 
that has fairly stood the test of time and weather, 
but its nature and appearance is such as to render it 
suitable only for low-pitched or concealed roofs. For 
out-buildings, such as carriage houses, stables, etc., 
with roofs nearly flat, we are of the opinion that the 
gravel roof can be used with safety and advantage. 

Much caution is required in the construction of 
eave-gutters and valleys, as a slight mistake or de- 
ficiency in either of these is frequently a source of 
great annoyance. All the copper or tin for this 
should be seamed, and soldered on both sides, and tin 
should, as in tin-roofing, be carefully coated with 
red-lead on both sides. Particular attention should 
always be given to the dimensions of these append- 
ages, in proportion to the area of the roof and the 
consequent volume of water to be discharged; if a 



HINTS ON CONSTRUCTION. 51 

gutter is too small, or has not sufficient current given 
it, (i.e. descent necessary to throw off water,) an 
overflow takes place, the consequences of which are 
disastrous to the walls, particularly if they are exter- 
nally plastered. A result similar to this may he 
occasioned by too small a vent at the head of the 
conductor or down spout. 

In shingle roofs all ridges are formed by weaving or 
trimming each course over the end of the last one 
from the opposite side, thus making a neat and water- 
proof finish. 

But in slate this cannot be done, consequently the 
ridge of a slate roof must be covered with copper or 
tin ; in some parts of the country English ridge-tile 
are used, but unless the building is very large and 
the roof high, these present a clumsy and unsightly 
appearance. A very beautiful and ornamental ridge 
covering is now manufactured of slate, a representa- 
tion of which is given at fig. 15, 
but the expense precludes its uni- 
versal adoption; the example here 
shown is intended for a pointed 

roof. F». Ilk— Bnwi Turn. 

Joists and Partitions. — A point in the setting of 
joists too frequently neglected, is the hearing or dis- 
tribution of the weight on the wall. We have seen 
carpenters leave some joists resting on a bearing of 
one inch, while others would have from four to six 
inches. Now, ordinarily, the insertion of a joist to 
the depth of four inches in a brick wall, or six inches 
in a stone wall, is sufficient for practical purposes — 
that is, on the assumption that all the materials are 
good, the brick solid, and the joists of proper dimen- 




52 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



sions and sound timber; but three grains of common 
sense will show us that little advantage is derived 
from the depth of insertion, if, after all, the joist is 
allowed to bear only upon an inch block, or, as some- 
times happens, a trifling pine wedge. No wonder 
that in some of our would-be fine houses we see the 
wash-boards and floor parting company, a catastrophe 
usually attributed to the shrinkage of joists, but 
often really owing to the above cause. 

Lattice bridging is a process of great importance 
in view of the additional firmness thus given to the 
floor; no span greater than ten feet should be with- 




out a course of bridging in the center, and any greater 
than twenty ought to have two courses. 

Ceilings derive additional security from cracking, by 
cross-lathing the joists with 1 i by 2-inch lath, to re- 
ceive the plastering lath; this insures a gradual dis- 
tribution of any shrinking or sagging that may take 
place in a particular joist, whereas the abrupt depart- 
ure from the plane of the ceiling by either of the 
above accidents is almost sure to cause fissures in the 
plastering. 

Where stud-partitions cross a room of large span, 
some provision for the support of the weight thus 
added should be made; the simpler mode of doing 
this is to double and pin together the joists directly 
beneath the line of partition, but a more effective 
method is found in the use of struts, (see fig. 17,) 
where the position of the openings will admit of it. 



HINTS ON CONSTRUCTION. 



53 




Via. 17.— Trussed PA&tmoir. 



The crowning or cambering of joists is a very good 
practice; this consists in dressing the upper edge of 
the joist with a curve in the direction of its length, 
the rise above a straight 
line varying from half 
an inch to an inch, 
in proportion to the 
length of the joist; in 
the first place, this has 
a tendency to prevent 
a sagging or deflection 
of the floor, and in the 
second place, this sink- 
ing must he considerable before the floor in the center 
falls below the plane of the floor-line at the walls. 
With the bridging above spoken of, and the crowning 
here described, it is scarcely possible for a well-joisted 
floor of reasonable span to succumb to any pressure 
likely to occur in dwelling apartments. We mean by 
well-joisted, a sufficient number of joists of sufficient 
dimensions. We would seldom place flooring-joists 
less than sixteen inches between centers, and never, 
except for very small apartments, recommend the use 
of less than two and a half by 10-inch joists. We 
have already expressed our views on the relative pro- 
portions of weight-sustaining timbers, and with a few 
incidental remarks shall close this article. 

Latterly, some attention has been given in practice, 
to supporting floors on iron rests instead of inserting 
the joists in the wall. We think this commendable 
in walls of moderate thickness, but as the cost is 
something of an item, particularly in country houses 
where it is desirable to avoid great expenditure, 



54 



HOMESTEAD ABCHITECTURE. 






cur 



other methods to subserve the same object may be 
adopted. This object is to prevent the disintegration 
and falling of walls, by the leverage of joists burnt 
off in the middle during a fire, a catastrophe, happily, 

of rare occurrence in the 
country, but which, never- 
theless, should be in a meas- 
ure provided against. By 
sloping back the end of each 
joist to the inside face of 
wall, as represented at fig, 
18, we make preparation for 
the emergency. Another ex- 
pedient now extensively practiced is to project courses 
of brick from the face of the wall, each course having 
about an inch projection over that beneath it; this is 
continued for four or five courses, or until the proper 
width for bearing is arrived at. 

The angle-filling thus formed takes the place of 
the ordinary wood-bracketing for the plaster cornice. 



IM.18. 



DESIGN I. 

Oriental ©ills 




Fro. 19. 



(66) 



DESIGN I. 
&u ®xUuUl fitlx. 

We enter upon our series by the presentation of 
a design adapted to the wants of the man of for- 
tune in any section, but particularly suitable for the 
home of the retired Southern planter. Aside from 
the novelty of the plan, it has every recommendation 
for convenience and utility that can be devised for a 
residence, where not only comfort but luxury is des- 
tined to reign. The occupants of such a residence are 
not only supposed to be wealthy, but fashionable 
people, and to possess, in common with all the real 
aristocracy of every section, a character for hospitality, 
exhibited in the frequent entertainment of numerous 
guests, and a liberal allowance of time and money for 
the purposes of social and convivial enjoyment. 

The choice of style in this example was less a 
matter of caprice than the natural growth of the 
ground-plan adopted. The central apartment, designed 
ad it was, not only for a thoroughfare by which all the 
adjacent rooms could be entered, besides being so favor- 
ably situated as a medium for light and ventilation, 
naturally suggested the domed observatory. Fancy 
dictated that the dome should be bulbiform — a remem- 
brancer of Eastern magnificence which few will judge 
misplaced as it looms up against the mellowed azure 

(57) 



58 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



of a Southern sky. In addition to this, the Moorish 
arch employed in the balconies and the foliated 
drapery of the verandas will fully sustain us in the 
application of the term "Oriental," despite the Italian 
details of cornice and window. 

Apartments. — A perusal of the plans with the fol- 
lowing description will 
enable the reader fully 
to comprehend the in- 
ternal arrangements 
of this design. A, fig. 
20, is the rotunda, oc- 
tagonal in plan, its di- 
ameter being 24 feet. 
Its vertical dimension 
extends to the top of 
the observatory, and 
is finished by an inter- 
nal dome. From this 
rotunda are the ad- 
jacent apartments entered on every floor, galleries 
being constructed for the purpose on a level with all 
the floors above the principal. Niches for statuary 
occupy the alternate sides of the octagon, thus afford- 
ing an excellent opportunity for tasteful decoration. 
The apartment B, 20 by 34 feet, is the entrance hall, 
and contains the principal staircase. The adjoining 
space K is the front veranda, 12 by 40 feet, and can 
only be entitled by this fact, and perhaps a superior 
finish in floor and ceiling, to any greater importance 
than either of the others designated by the same 
letter, (K,) as their exterior finish is necessarily 
similar. C is the drawing-room, 20 by 34 feet; D, 




fio. 20-— Pbihcipal Floor. 



AN ORIENTAL VILLA. 59 

reception-room, 18 by 24 feet; E, 18 by 24 feet, F, 20 
by 34, and H, 18 by 24 feet, are a suite of family 
rooms. G is the dining-room, 20 by 34 feet; I, a break- 
fast-room, 18 by 24 feet; M, M, dressing-rooms to E and 
H. L is an entrance porch to the apartment F, and at 
the same time affords an opportunity for the admission 
of light and air; or it might be converted into an 
alcove for the room F, by changing the position of the 
windows and piers to the outer verge of the space, — 
this would render it easy, if necessary, for the occu- 
pant of the room F to gain the privilege of either of 
the dressing-rooms, M, M; in many cases this no doubt 
would be desirable. The effect of this alcove, when 
duly decorated with pilasters and drapery, as viewed 
from the opposite side of the apartment, when ad- 
missible by the uses of the room, would be pleasant 
indeed; the same modification may be made on the 
chamber plan. 

Turning our attention to the ground floor, fig. 21, 
we find the apartment 

A retaining its octago- jjfe " K - ^Vw 

nal shape and the same -^^^1 _ k m -tit* ^XV 
dimensions, the alter- jf ♦ ^ " *^ * jSw 
nate sides or rather an- \{ y^V s -d ^ 

gles being occupied by - 1 j y^ ^^ | | 
closets; it is lighted ,| K I f L A J B I**! 
through strong glass in . K^^OT ■ w^ > 
the floor over it, aided \£ X o JT^ SS 
by lights in the upper ^J* jLmm*mJk±, jfr 
sections of the commu- ^^^- - *- *F^ 
nicating doors. B is 
the billiard-room; C, 
staircase hall; D, smoking-room; E, office; F, play- 



60 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 




Fig. 22.— Chamber Plan. 



room for children; G, servants' hall; H, sewing-room; 
I, store-room; K, areas beneath verandas. 
On the second floor, fig. 22, A is the staircase hall; 

B, the communicating 
gallery; C, chambers; 
D, verandas; H, ward- 
robes; I, bath-room. It 
will be observed that 
a flight of private 
stairs on the rear ver- 
anda extend from the 
ground floor to this 
one; a flight from this 
to the attic floor is 
placed opposite to the 
bath-room I. 

Construction and Finish. — It would be difficult to 
conceive a plan in which the abstract elements of 
strength are more successfully embodied than in the 
one now under consideration. The walls, by their 
peculiar relative positions, mutually strengthen and 
sustain each other to such a degree as to defy the 
storms of a torrid clime. A residence, after this de- 
§ sign, is now being erected for a gentleman in the vi- 
cinity of Natchez, Miss. The principal walls — by 
which we mean all the walls except those forming 
the minor divisions of bath-rooms, dressing-rooms, 
and closets — are of brick from the foundation, as 
no building-stone is found in that section of coun- 
try. The foundation courses in the bottom are 
laid with hatd-burnt brick, very wide, and grouted 
with cement, and gradually set off until the . proper 
thickness of the wall is arrived at. This in the 



AN ORIENTAL VILLA. 61 

exterior walls is two feet, including a hollow space 
of three inches between the inner section of nine and 
the outer section of thirteen inches. Above the line 
of principal floor, each section in thickness of the ex- 
terior wall is eight and a half inches, with a hollow 
of five inches in width, so as to admit free play to the 
outside blinds, which, protected by a close casing, 
slide into the wall, a plan adopted to avoid the dis- 
agreeable appearance presented by a circular-headed 
blind when open. 

The fire-places are bestowed on what would other- 
wise be waste space in the building ; this led to the 
adoption of a manner of venting smoke seldom if 
ever before applied in dwelling-houses. Four circular 
shafts, two feet and a half in diameter, into which 
the fire-places vent, are carried up the full height of 
the building, furnishing at once an economical and 
thoroughly efficient mode of attaining the desired 
end. Dampers are inserted in the throat of each 
flue to regulate combustion, as more fully explained 
under the head of "warming and ventilation." 

The veranda floors may exhibit their timbers to 
good advantage, the lower edges of each piece and 
also the angles formed by the floor and timbers being 
moulded, and the whole divided into sections, so as 
to have the effect of bold panel-work. Where a good 
quality of suitable wood, say yellow pine, cypress, 
or oak, has been used, oiling and varnishing on the 
natural color of the wood will be found to have a 
beautiful appearance; in other cases, painting in 
suitable chosen ceiling tints may be resorted to. 

. On the principal floor encaustic tiles could be used 
with a very pretty effect in the rotunda. This could 



62 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

be best done by a special design embracing a center- 
flower, of say 5 feet diameter, surrounded by regu- 
larly disposed patterns in bright but not glaring col- 
ors; the floor-lights for the apartment beneath may 
be inwrought with these without detriment to the 
appearance. The front veranda and also the en- 
trance hall would be greatly improved by floors of 
marble, in which white should predominate : nor 
would stairs of white marble, and wainscoting of the 
same, both in hall and rotunda, be on any account, 
save that of expenditure, objectionable, but, on the 
contrary, desirable. In lieu of this, however, some of 
the hard woods admitting of fine polish may be used 
for both the stairs and wainscoting of hall: we 
should give well-selected walnut the preference, and 
extend its application to the dining-room. 

It would be superfluous to attempt the details of a 
building of this kind within our present limits ; any 
person desiring to adopt the plan, would of course 
apply to a competent architect for the working 
drawings. 

Estimate. — It is very difficult to say, with any de- 
gree of precision, what would be the cost of this villa, 
without entering into a more specific description of 
the execution of both the interior and exterior. In 
this part of the Middle States, however, assuming the 
walls to be built of good brick, the exterior stuccoed, 
and the interior finished in a manner consistent with 
the general character of the design and hints we have 
given, — the height of the several stories being as fol- 
lows: first story, nine; principal story, fourteen; 
second story, twelve; and attic, nine feet, — the total 
cost would not vary much from $40,000. 



DESIGN II. 



$n Italian flilla. 




Fio. 23. 



(.**) 



DESIGN II. 

fu §un»n mtu. 

This design is intended for the country-seat of a 
man of ample fortune, and to occupy a site in the 
midst of highly cultivated and beautiful scenery. 
Though not remarkably ostentatious, its appearance 
at once bespeaks it the abode of the wealthy and re- 
fined, and demands all the accessories necessary to 
the highly embellished landscape, such as parks, 
lawns, and artificial lakes ; the possession of these 
would entitle it to a rank inferior to few country resi- 
dences within our knowledge. There is an evident 
partiality existing in some parts of our country for 
the Italian style of building. Originating in a climate 
almost similar to that of the middle tod southern 
sections of our country, at least so far as relates to 
the greater portion of the year, but little difficulty is 
experienced in modifying it to suit our tastes and 
habits; and, indeed, it seems to need less modification 
than any other style, to make it perfectly acceptable 
to those who seek a union of the useful with a com- 
bination of the picturesque and beautiful. 

Though not so essentially northern as those styles 
of which the high roof is a characteristic, its project- 
ing roofs and ample verandas afford pleasing shelter 
during the dazzling sunshine of our summer months, 
and furnish an excellent reason for the preference 

5 (65) 



66 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

frequently shown for it in the Middle and Southern 
States. 

In the example before us, it was the object to show 
as much force and spirit as the nature of the style 
would allow; for its general tendency is rather to 
exhibit placid repose, than the result of effort or 
1/ violent action. The active American mind is not 
satisfied with the quiet aspect of unbroken hori- 
zontal lines; we have, therefore, striven to effect a 
compromise between the evidences of action and re- 
pose, by going the full length that the style permits, 
and varying the effect by intersecting walls and roof- 
lines; to complete the picturesqueness of what is 
already done, we introduce the campanile or Italian 
tower, which, in an irregular composition like the 
present, will be admitted to be not only a desirable 
but beautiful feature. 

Accommodation. — The vestibule A, fig. 24, 10 by 
10 feet, is entered from the front veranda K, and 
affords communication not only with the main hall 
F, but with the drawing-room B, 17 by 33 feet, which 
will be found occasionally, and perhaps frequently, of 
very pleasant utility upon the withdrawal of com- 
pany. 

The apartment E, 17 by 18 feet, may be used for a 
library, or thrown open at pleasure, as an extension 
of the drawing-room; this can readily be done by 
sliding doors. The veranda surrounding these apart- 
ments will greatly tend to keep them cool in summer, 
aside from the facility afforded by it for enjoying 
social promenades in the evening air. To enhance 
the opportunity for this, we would extend all the 
drawing-room and library windows to the floor; this 



AN ITALIAN VILLA. 



67 



would present a uniform and agreeable appearance, 
aside from its desirability for the purpose already 
mentioned. 




Fio. 24.— PmnccupjLL Floob. 



Fie. 25.— Sboovd Floob. 



We notice C, a very pleasant reception-room, hav- 
ing, in addition to two windows opening on the 
veranda I, a recess opposite the entrance, which is 
not only an excellent and effective appendage to the 
room, but tends to diversify the external appearance. 
D is an ample dining-room, 17 by 18 feet, for a family 
of eight or ten persons; if it is desirable to have this 
room of greater proportions, by the removal of the pri- 
vate stairs into the kitchen G, and the consequent ex- 
tension of the back building, it may be increased to 17 
by 22 feet with very little additional cost. The only ob- 
jection to this would be, that the half-pace of the main 



68 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

stairs, and consequently the whole of the chamber 
floor, would be inaccessible to servants from the 
kitchen; but even this difficulty is not so hard to 
surmount as might be imagined : it would probably 
be best done by cutting the corners of the dining- 
room next the hall, by either a circular or straight 
partition — we should prefer the latter; by shifting 
the position of the windows nearest the corners, the 
octagonal form might be completed, — the angles 
against the external wall being turned into account 
for closets. In the present arrangement, however, a 
very fine china closet for the dining-room may be had 
beneath the principal stairs, access to the cellar being 
given beneath the private stairs. A kitchen G, 17 
by 17 feet, with a wash-house or summer-kitchen H, 
15 by 16 feet, attached, completes the division of the 
principal floor of this villa; if the latter apartment 
should be needed for summer use only, the tempera- 
ture of the place would be greatly modified by in- 
closing at least two sides of it with glass and pivot 
blinds; the sun and wind could thus be admitted or 
excluded at pleasure. 

On examination of the second floor, fig. 28, we find 
five excellent chambers, respectively designated by 
the letters A, B, C, D, E, and a bed-room F, over the 
kitchen. It will be observed that provision has been 
made in all the rooms on both floors, except the cham- 
bers C, D, for warming by fire-places. However much 
this may seem out of date to those accustomed to the 
modern appliances of hot-air, steam, and hot-water 
furnaces, our experience convinces us that many years 
must elapse before the old-fashioned fire-place will be 
dispensed with in the warmer portions of this country, 



AN ITALIAN VILLA. 69 

— indeed, in view of the nature of the climate and 
mode of service, we douht whether any of the above 
inventions will ever be adopted to the exclusion of 
the time-honored fire-place. 

A small flight of stairs to the observatory may be 
constructed in the tower G. In addition to the effect 
of this feature on the aspect of the building, it will 
give a delightful opportunity for the enjoyment of an 
extended view of the surrounding scenery. 

Construction. — All the important walls of this 
structure are intended to be of brick, and to rest on 
foundations of stone carried up to the surface line of 
the surrounding grounds, if that material can be pro- 
cured at reasonable cost. The whole area of the 
building should he occupied by a cellar; this is not 
only useful for various purposes, but is promotive of 
the durability of the joists, floors, and whatever acci- 
dental wood-work may necessarily occur beneath the 
first floor. 

Where stone is plentiful and can be used with small 
cost, — for much depends on the nature of the stone, 
whether it is easily quarried and dressed, and of a suit- 
able color, — we should extend the stone-work to the 
level of the principal floor, taking care, however, to 
face the exterior with well-dressed range work, with a 
projecting course, which would form a drip for the 
wall below, and make an agreeable line indicating the 
proper base or beginning of the structure. It must 
be borne in mind, however, that no stone should be 
used that would make a violent contrast with the color 
intended to be given to the body of the building ; thus 
it would be bad taste to exhibit white marble or the 
white limestone of St. Louis in the foundation walls, 



70 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

unless the building was intended to be white or nearly 
so. The idea we wish to convey is not that contrasts 
should be avoided in detail, but that violent contrasts 
in any of the essential components of the structure 
are destructive to harmony of effect. 

Estimate!. — Assuming the height of stories to be 
respectively 15 and 13 feet in the clear, and all the 
verandas, cornices, etc., ae well as the interior finish 
of the apartments, executed in a finished and work* 
manlike manner, the cost of this building, in the 
neighborhood of Philadelphia, would be about twelve 
thousand dollars. This of course does not include the 
grading of grounds, or the expenditure for any lawn 
or garden embellishments. 



DE8IGN III. 

Jfarm |0«st. 




Fio. 27.— PnufCiPAL Floob. 



(72) 



DESIGN III. 

The proportions of this house are good, and the 
form pleasing without being complicated; the impres- 
sion produced on the observer by its general aspect is, 
that room, comfort, and convenience are within its 
walls, and that the dignity and hospitality of the 
gentleman farmer are manifested silently yet plainly 
by its external expression. It seems, however, in its 
architectural details to have borrowed somewhat from 
its city neighbor. We readily suspect that its owner 
has spent a portion of his life at something else than 
tilling the soil; that he has been a merchant or a 
physician, for we often hear of such changes of avoca- 
tion in this country: at any rate, we must conclude 
that he is a farmer with some means, and a taste some* 
what refined and cultivated by the company he has 
kept. Yet the design looks essentially like a country 
house — it could scarcely be recognized as anything 
else ; the few ornaments that it wears cannot disguise 
its native plainness ; it has been born and bred in the 
country, and all the city polish that it has received 
cannot conceal the palpable fact. This design might 
be built in any part of the Union, without reference to 
the use implied by the appellation of "farfh-house" 
which we have here given it, and it would always be 
ranked as a country house of considerable importance; 



74 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

yet there is nothing about it not strictly in accordance 
with the position in life of a farmer in independent 
circumstances. 

Accommodation. — The ample veranda in front, fig. 
27, with its central feature, is worthy of notice ; it 
seems to invite the passer-by to walk in and share 
the repose and comfort that exist within. From this 
veranda we enter the hall F, 8 by 33 feet, which 
contains the principal staircase, and affords communi- 
cation with all the best roon*s on this floor. A is the 
parlor, 33 by 16 feet, entered by folding doors, and 
a good example of a regular, well-proportioned room; 
when we say well-proportioned, we mean according to 
our ideas of interiors, rather than in conformity with 
the rules based on classical authority for the regulation 
of internal proportions. Of course much depends on 
the height of the story; in this case it is twelve feet. 
B, 14 by 16 feet, is a library or sitting-room, or both, 
as the requirements of the family may dictate. The 
chief attraction of this room is the octagonal bay, a 
very pleasant feature, whether contemplated from 
within or without. The dining-room D is 16 by 18 feet, 
and on occasions of unusual festivity can be extended 
by throwing open the sliding doors into the room B. 
A nice closet to the dining-room is seen at I, and 
another for the occasional stowing away of various 
articles of use or wear, such as will readily occur to 
the mind of any liver in the country. G is a passage 
from dining-room to kitchen; and H a pantry, repre- 
sented as shelved on both sides; from the passage G 
the private stairs extend to the second floor of the 
back building, which is on a level with the half-pace 
of main stairs; a passage from the landing of the 



A FARM-HOUSE. 



75 



former communicates with the latter, rendering all 
the chambers on the second floor easily accessible to 
servants, without using the exhibited flight of the 
main stairs. The apartment E, fig. 27, is designed 
for a kitchen, and by its dimensions, 15 by 22 feet, it 
may be readily inferred that we have a partiality for 
those good, old-fashioned country kitchens that our an- 
cestors delighted in. Beyond this is a one-story apart- 
ment N, 12 by 15 feet, intended for a multitude of 
uses which will not fail to suggest themselves to those 
acquainted with the requirements of farm life. 

On the second floor, the apartments A, B, C, D are 
fine, well-lighted and ven- 
tilated chambers, well pro- 
vided with closets. The 
bath-room E may be 
reached from the half- 
pace of main stairs, or by 
steps from the chamber D. 
F would be very suitable 
for a bed-room for such fe- 
male assistants as are gen- 
erally required about farm- 
houses. 6, accessible only 
by a small flight of stairs 
from the kitchen, may be 
occupied by a farm-labor- 
er; in most cases it is best 
to provide tenant houses 
for such assistants as are required on the farm, yet 
we not unfrequently find one or two, and sometimes 
more, favorites not only lodging under the same roof 
with the farmer, but living on such terms with him 




^Ttnr 



Pio. 28.— SxooirD Floor. 



76 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

that a stranger might with difficulty recognize the 
superior. 

It is needless to say that a cellar under the whole 
of this house is a thing indispensable. Every farmer 
knows the value of space thus obtained, for bins, store- 
rooms, etc.; these require more or less light and venti- 
lation, according to their several uses. Good attic 
bed-rooms are easily procured by a little additional 
cost of fitting up. A pediment corresponding to that 
in front is required on the rear, jas well for head-room 
and light to the stairs as to balance the design more 
perfectly. 

Construction. — The walls are intended to be of 
brick, and stuccoed. Bricks can be manufactured very 
readily, although much skill is required in the pro- 
duction of the fine pressed bricks exhibited in city 
fronts; a good quality of ordinary brick for walling 
may be made by common laborers with but very little 
aid or instruction from those accustomed to the busi- 
ness. There is therefore no reason why the farmer 
may not, by the employment of a little tact in the dis- 
tribution of his farm-labor, manage to mould and burn 
a great quantity of bricks at such intervals as may 
occur in the operations of a single season without 
calling in much extra help. Such a mode of pro- 
cedure greatly enhances the cheapness of his dwelling; 
and although the bricks may not be of the smoothest 
kind, if properly burned they yet afford the sub- 
stance for a permanent building; and as brick-color is 
never particularly desirable for a country dwelling, it 
is at once in accordance with utility and good taste to 
coat the walls with good mortar, the surface of which 
can be rendered agreeable by any tint that the fancy 



A FABX-HOUSE. 77 

of the proprietor or his architect may suggest. The 
window heads, verandas, and cornices may he of wood ; 
indeed they are designed with especial reference to 
the use of that material in their construction. The 
bay-window we would build of brick. The kitchen 
and veranda floors should be laid with narrow boards, 
and the latter saturated with oil. Hard, durable 
wood should be preferred for these exposed floors, not 
only on account of exposure to the weather as in the 
case of the verandas, but for the additional ease thus 
afforded in maintaining an appearance of cleanliness 
in the kitchen; this is also greatly enhanced by a 
careful selection of material, and strictly enforcing the 
directions of the architect, whose specifications so fre- 
quently declare that the floor must be "smoothed off 
when laid." Good straight-grained, well-seasoned white 
oak will as nearly answer the requirements above 
pointed out as any wood within our knowledge; but 
in making preparations for building it will be found 
best to avoid the cutting of young timber for the pur- 
pose; large old trees, when perfectly sound, and our 
forests abound with such, are decidedly preferable. 

Estimate. — To build this design in the manner here 
indicated, all the windows having exterior blinds, and 
rising sashes with weights, and the roof being slate, 
would cost in the neighborhood of $6000. Many 
modifications might be made, however, that would con- 
siderably lessen the cost; for instance, to erect the 
entire structure of wood and cover it with shingles, 
the expenditure would probably not exceed $5000, 
Yet we cannot avoid expressing our preference for the 
brick walls. If the owner could find it convenient 
to make his bricks in the manner we have mentioned, 



7& HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

it would be much to his interest, in view of the prob* 
able expense of future repairs required by the edifice, 
and the additional satisfaction yielded by the more 
permanent structure, to use them at the cost of pres- 
ent disadvantage. 



DESIGN IV. 

§aburban ftilla. 




Fio.29. 




Fig. 80.— Principal Floor 



(80) 



DESIGN IV. 

$ Mntbw Wi\U. 

The prime object of a house in town is concentra- 
tion, that of a house in the country is the enjoyment 
of external scenery and the free air of heaven. In 
the town we rarely meet with anything to admire 
beyond the productions of man, and the eye meets 
with but little beauty in its daily range except such 
as may exist in the architecture of the place. On the 
contrary, the Country presents not only such archi- 
tectural beauties as it may possess for our enjoyment, 
but the extensive and verdant views of varied scen- 
ery, which retain the former in a secondary position. 

The influence of two leading principles seems to 
pervade the villa residences of every age, in direct- 
ing the disposition of the different apartments: one 
of these is, shelter from the winds and storms which 
prevail in the particular situation selected; the other, 
the enjoyment of the views of the surrounding scen- 
ery: hence it is that country residences have in 
t/&U ages and countries been comparatively scattered 
and irregular. The conclusion drawn from these ob- 
servations, and applicable to the present subject, is 
that a villa residence ought to be more or less char- 
acterized by its marked irregularity and tendency to 
extension. 

(81) 



82 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

When we see a dwelling asserting its character by 
such unmistakable signs, we take for granted that it 
is a country house; but when it assumes the detail and 
exquisite polish of city architecture, another rank must 
be assigned to it: its location is either in some rural 
village or the suburbs of a great metropolis; strictly 
speaking, it is not destined for either country or city, 
although bearing the stamp of both. 

Design IV. is of this character: irregular and pic- 
turesque in outline, yet subdued and finished in detail, 
we at once recognize the strong spreading outgrowth 
of the country district equipped in the habiliments 
of artificial refinement. Its decorative features are of 
the Florentine-Italian cast, as indicated by the use of 
rustic quoins, showing how a strong massive style of 
building can be rendered subservient to domestic 
architecture by the introduction of features having a 
counter-effect; in this we allude to the numerous win- 
dows of ample dimensions exhibited in this design. 
On examination of the rooms, however, none will com- 
plain that they are too well lighted. We have no 
fancy for that sort of domestic economy which, like 
Miss Havisham's, prescribes merely light sufficient to 
disturb the darkness of a room, without overcoming 
or dispelling it. Most of our readers will agree with 
us in saying that the requirements for internal con- 
venience and the demands of the style adopted for ex- 
ternal decoration here meet, and admirably harmonize 
with each other. Before proceeding with the descrip- 
tion of the interior, we would call attention to the 
drive in front, which forms not only a pleasant adjunct 
to the base of the tower, but is also a matter of great 
convenience and utility. Aside from the propriety of 



A SUBUEBAN VILLA. 83 

it as a protection to the front entrance, it is obviously 
of much importance as a shelter upon the occasion of 
arrivals during a storm. 

Accommodation. — Referring to the plan of the prin- 
cipal floor, fig. 30, we find D at once the entrance and 
staircase hall, 15 by 18 feet, beyond which an ample 
passage extends to the rear veranda, furnishing an 
opportunity for complete summer ventilation as well 
as a pleasant thoroughfare. The apartment A, 16 by 
22 feet, is the dining-hall, which is commodiously 
situated with respect to access from the hall and 
principal room, and is well calculated for a sitting- 
room after the table and its appendages are removed. 
The apartment B, 15 by 24 feet, is the parlor, or 
room specially devoted to the entertainment of com- 
pany. C, 14 by 16 feet, is the library or office, where 
the gentleman of leisure can enjoy his books and news- 
papers, or inhale the essence of a fragrant "Havana." 
A fine veranda extends along the rear of parlor and 
library, and might be continued to advantage entirely 
around the library or the drawing-room, as could be 
determined by the location of the house with relation 
to the points of the compass ; -we would recommend 
both, but rather insist on the latter, as being an addi- 
tion compatible with both the comfort and beauty of 
the design. The division designated by the letter E 
is a kitchen, 16 by 18 feet, communicating with the 
dining-room by the passage F, and with the yard by 
a side door, and also by the passage intervening be- 
tween it and the closet G. The servants' stairs start 
from the passage F, and afford access to the bed-room 
L, intended for a servants' sleeping-room, and by a 
passage to two of the three chambers H. On this 



84 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



floor, fig. 31, we find the bath-room K, the dress- 
ing-room L, and ample closets N; from the main 
hall M the stairs are continued upward to the roof 




Fig. 31/— Chamber Floor. 



of the tower, with landings at the several floors in- 
dicated by the elevation ; from the windows of the 
third floor project balconies of moderate dimensions, 
which form a very pleasant feature in the external 
aspect of the building. Unfortunately, the pedestals 
of the balustrade surmounting the tower are repre- 
sented too large in the engraving ; the consequence is, 
an appearance of heaviness in the design which it 
does not actually present when erected, as it has 
already been in Germantown, near Philadelphia, to 
the entire satisfaction of its proprietor, a very tasteful 
and well-educated gentleman : and much to the ad- 
miration of hundreds who have visited it. 

Construction. — This design is manifestly intended 
to be executed in stone of a fine quality. There is a 
delicacy, a chasteness in it that will admit of no 
trifling with, in the way of introducing any coarse or 
commonplace material. Notwithstanding the same 
effect might be produced on ninety-nine one-hun- 



A SUBURBAN VILLA. 85 

dredths of those who see it, by brick, wood, and 
plaster, yet the finer sensibilities of the artist revolt 
at the idea of such substitutes. We might indicate 
several varieties of stone in which this design could 
be executed to excellent advantage, — one for which we 
have on many occasions already shown our preference 
is the Pictou or Acadian freestone; another is the 
stone from the Mount Joliet quarries, Illinois. We 
are not fully apprised of the durability of the latter, 
but can recommend it for beauty of appearance and 
susceptibility of fine polish. Other varieties exist in 
different parts of the country ; in the neighborhood 
of Pittsburg and Cincinnati are quarries which pro- 
duce an excellent quality of stone for the execution of 
fine details, but few of these varieties approximate 
so near our beau ideal of color for villa walls as 
the Pictou or Mount Joliet stone. It is scarcely 
necessary to say that, in speaking of the use of stone 
in the exterior walls, we allude only to facing them 
with what is termed ashlar work. This is done when 
the stone is transported a great distance, or procured 
with difficulty, in order to avoid extravagant expend- 
iture ; it being cheaper, under such circumstances, to 
build the body of the wall (technically called filling- 
in) with brick. 

The roof of this building is intended to be overlaid 
with tin, a material which can be put on, in the neigh- 
borhood of Philadelphia, for about $10 per square; 
and, where good mechanics are employed in laying, 
well merits the precedence given it for all roofs of 
moderate pitch. The bay-windows, drave, and veran- 
das are also covered with it. 

In finishing up the interior, we should recommend 

6 



86 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

walnut doors to all the principal apartments, espe- 
cially for those of the first story. Marble mantels, in 
the library and parlor at least, would be required, to 
give a finish consistent with the established character 
of the design. By reference to the dining-room A, 
the reader will observe that it contains no fire-place. 
This leads us to observe that the plan was arranged 
with a view to warming all the principal rooms by a 
furnace in the cellar; and also accounts for the ab- 
sence of jambs from the chamber immediately over 
the dining-room. 

Estimate. — The cost of Design IV., if erected in 
the neighborhood of a large city in the Middle or 
Western States, would be about $15,000, with proper 
supervision by an architect or competent builder. In 
any event, a house of this magnitude, involving the 
above outlay, requires that an architect should be 
consulted for the working plans, as few builders are 
found competent to do justice to the design from the 
scale on which it is here presented. 



DESIGN V. 

$ picturesque Ǥ0t|ju Cottage. 




Fro. 32. 





Fn. 33^— Principal Floor. 



Fio. 34.— Cbameeb Fioom. (88) 



DESIGN V. 

t 

& §i(tnm%vit $>0thit Mtep. 

Hebe is a cottage which, though too small to he 
termed a villa, is such a cottage as even a nobleman 
might dwell in. That the necessaries and comforts of 
life can be enjoyed within the limits afforded by this 
design will, we think, be admitted by those who will 
take a moment for the inspection of its appointments. 
We must first, however, venture a few remarks on the 
external appearance of this very spirited design. Its 
steep roof at once denotes it the legitimate offspring 
of a northern climate, and all its decorations are op- 
posed to the spirit of passionless repose, which seems 
to prevade architecture under the influence of Gre- 
cian, and we had almost said, Italian skies. To ex- 
press our meaning more plainly with reference to its 
character as a whole, it appears, with very little aid 
from the imagination, to have been impelled upward 
from the ground to its present magnitude by some 
strong mysterious influence, rather than slowly and 
gradually constructed by laying stone on stone. The 
ideal character with which an object thus becomes in- 
vested is what yields delight to the imaginative mind, 
and is the true source of pleasure derived from the pic- 
turesque; to the mind of poetic cast, no evidence ap- 
pears of the slow, constant toil necessary to develop the 
structure : it might have shot up to its present size and 

(89) 



. i 



90 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

proportions as suddenly as the world came into exist- 
ence at the command of its Creator. Artists account 
for the effect thus produced, by the predominance of 
vertical over horizontal lines, the latter being few 
and entirely subordinate to the former; and the doc- 
trine is sanctioned by all critics and close observers of 
cause and effect. 

By virtue of the aspiring character of the composi- 
tion, its proper site will be found in the midst of hilly 
scenery, or on some of the high, broken banks of our 
noble rivers, where Nature, in spite of the conquering 
energy of man, still holds a considerable sway. We 
do not mean that it should be distant or secluded 
from observation, but within view of some public 
highway or navigable river; the traveler's eye rests 
with pleasure on any object that may thus be happily 
introduced to fill up the chasm between Art and 
Nature, and reconcile the mind to the infinite distance 
interposed between our own and the productions of 
the inimitable creative influence on which we bestow 
the latter appellation. 

The proprietor of this cottage is assumed to be a 
citizen of refinement, who, in the leisure of summer 
months, seeks recreation at a distance from the scene 
of his mercantile or professional labors; his small 
family retire to this spot with him, rather to enjoy a 
season of comparative quiet than to give elegant en- 
tertainments; if we can find comfortable accommoda- 
tions for him within the limits designated by the 
engraving, our end will be accomplished. 

We must not omit to note, however, that by dis- 
pensing with the more ornamental portions of the 
exterior details, this would make an admirable farm 



A PICTURESQUE GOTHIC COTTAGE. 91 

cottage for the inland districts. We should direct 
that all the main features should be preserved intact, 
the cornice and porches retain their present bold pro- 
jection, the difference being made solely in the omis- 
sion of the decorated barge-board, and perhaps the 
bay-windows. For greater economy, the chimney- 
stacks might be built in the center of the house, 
where they were originally designed to be, as will be 
seen by a glance at the elevation. 

Accommodation. — From the front porch A, fig. 33, 
the hall B, 8 by 18 feet, is entered: in one end of 
this, the stairs are located; the remaining portion 
would serve for a sitting-room for a small company 
on fine summer evenings. Adjoining this is the 
parlor C, 15 by 17 feet, and also the dining-room, of 
the same dimensions. We notice the parlor, to call 
attention to its pretty bay-windows, and to the 
veranda that shelters its windows from sun and 
storm. 

The apartment E is the kitchen, 12 feet square 
in the clear, and attached to this a lean-to 6, which 
may be inclosed or open according to the uses to 
which it may be applied by the housekeeper; if re- 
quired for an appendage to the kitchen for cooking 
purposes, it should be enlarged beyond the given size, 
8 by 10 feet, and provided with a fire-place; of 
course, it will then be a walled apartment with sash 
windows, and otherwise fitted up to exclude the 
weather. 

Transferring our attention to the plan for chamber 
floor, it will be seen that a flight of stairs from the 
kitchen gives access to the bed-room M, fig. 34, suit- 
able for the occupancy of such an assistant as might 



92 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

properly be lodged in the house. From K we readily 
enter the chambers H and L, between which excel- 
lent provision is made for closets, unfortunately repre- 
sented in the engraving as stairs to the left; but it 
will be perceived that there is ample space for stairs 
to the bed-rooms situated there, in the hall K. 

Construction. — The intention, with reference to 
the construction of this design, is that the walls shall 
be built of rubble-stone, and neatly pointed on the 
exterior ; the internal plastering being furred-off with 
wood to prevent dampness. Indeed, we know of no 
other method so commendable, in point of external 
fitness for this design, as that of building with stones 
just as they come from the quarry — a mode indicated 
by the term "rubble-work," and which is introduced 
to good advantage in all masonry where a rustic, pic- 
turesque effect is aimed at. For this design, we would 
recommend the use of a light-colored stone, and the 
strict avoidance of any dull, somber colors, such as 
very dark gray or brown; as these, if applied, would 
tend greatly to impair the beauty of the building. 

The cornices, porch, veranda, and finials are intended 
to be wood thoroughly coated with sand and paint ; 
or, if a good quality of oak or yellow pine is to be 
readily procured, an excellent effect can be obtained 
by oiling the natural surface of the wood; when the 
color of the stone employed is a light gray, or border- 
ing on blue, the contrast is inevitably agreeable, though 
stronger than would be admissible in a design of 
tamer architectural character. 

Estimate. — Finished as above indicated, a building 
after this design would cost about $2200. 



DESIGN VI. 

% §ratlutt& American Cottage 




Fio.35. 





Fio. 36.— Prihcipal Floob. 



Fio. 37.— Chambbb Floor. (04) 



DESIGN VI. 

^ §m%*U& ^mtxicm tfottityf. 

Wb mean what we say when we pay this design the 
high compliment of calling it American, and we think 
our readers will sustain us in the application of the 
very comprehensive term. Simple in form, conve- 
nient and economical in arrangement, tasteful yet un- 
assuming in detail, we know of no title so expressive 
of its deserts as the one we have given it. Although it 
possesses no trait preventive of its recognition as an 
important country residence in any part of the Union, 
we conceive that it would bo a decidedly acceptable 
dwelling to the well-to-do resident of the Western 
prairie. The umbrage afforded the windows by the 
canopies and balconies, while enhancing the boldness 
of the design, contributes greatly to the comfort of the 
apartments by protecting the glass from the noon-day 
.summer sun, even in the Northern and Western States. 
On the other hand, the disposition of the fire-places is 
such as is best calculated to insure good draught in 
chimneys, and the retention of a greater proportion 
of the heat generated within the building. The 
draught of unprotected flues is seriously impeded by 
the stagnation of the air, cooling on its upward pas- 
sage, while that of protected flues suffers little from 
this cause; and when we take into account the addi- 
tion to the warmth of the house, gained by keeping 

(95) 



96 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

the flues at a distance from the outer walls, their ad- 
vantages in an economical view become at once ap- 
parent. Not only does the increased draught of the 
chimney admit of the fires being kept up with ease, 
but the heat radiated by the flues, be that much or 
little, (and it is generally more than they are given 
credit for,) has its influence on the temperature of the 
rooms through which they pass. 

Accommodation. — From the front piazza F, fig. 36, 
the passage of 6 feet wide is entered, which gives 
access to all the rooms; an outside entrance is also 
given in the end of the building through the stair 
hall. A, 16 by 20 feet, is designed for a parlor; B, 
16 by 16 feet, is a sitting-room; C, 16 by 20 feet, a 
dining-room; D, 16 by 16 feet, a kitchen; and E, a 
pantry, affording also a passage from dining-room to 
kitchen. We may remark here, that a veranda ex- 
tending the full length of parlor and dining-room 
would be a very beneficial addition to this design, 
both for use and appearance. In accordance with the 
apparent demand for such an improvement, we have 
shown it in the perspective. The divisions of the 
chamber plan, fig. 37, are similar to those on the first 
floor, with the addition of closets on each side of the 
chimney fronts in all the chambers, H, — I being a 
wardrobe. 

Construction. — The great abundance of wood in 
some portions of our country, the facility with which 
it is transported from a timber region to a prairie, and 
the ease with which it is adapted to building, will be 
reason enough for using it for that purpose for genera- 
tions to come. The design before us is intended to 
be constructed of wood, the boarding being planed, 



A BRACKETED AMERICAN COTTAGE. 97 

grooved, and put on in the horizontal manner, the 
studding not being more than 16 inches apart; boards 
of the width of 6 inches, planed and grooved, to be 
put on as at A, fig. 9, can be procured at many of the 
lumber mills for $25 per thousand feet, and we have 
not the least doubt that in the immediate vicinity of 
well-timbered districts they can be obtained much 
cheaper. The foundation walls should be of stone, 
or if that material cannot be had, hard-burnt brick; 
but the use of the latter necessarily adds seriously to 
the cost of the structure. 

This design might with advantage be constructed 
of brick, that is, in case the outlay was not too closely 
limited. We have such a decided preference for 
any course calculated to give permanency to build- 
ing in general and our own designs in particular, 
that it is only when all chance for a more durable 
structure is out of the question that we yield to the 
substitution of wood. Although we acknowledge our 
admiration of the handsome new wooden houses that 
are scattered over the face of the country, we cannot 
help expressing our regret that a few years will render 
them unsightly and untenantable, while well-treated 
stone or brick buildings of the same age will scarcely 
show perceptible marks of disfigurement or decay. In 
speaking therefore of wooden houses, we speak of 
them as a thing of necessity, and not to be chosen 
when a better alternative offers. 

The' windows should have rising sashes, with 
weights; two in the dining-room and two in the 
parlor, extending to the floor, (on the assumption that 
the veranda before suggested will be extended along 
the flank.) The chimneys should of course be brick; 



98 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

very handsome moulded cappings of terra- cotta, 
which is an excellent and cheap substitute for stone, 
can be procured at slight expense, where mouldings 
are required. 

Estimate. — An excellent and substantial house may 
be built after this plan for $2800, in any part of Penn- 
sylvania, — the stories being 10 and 9 feet in the clear 
respectively; the exterior painted a warm, drab color, 
slightly tinged with blue, and the roof covered with 
white pine shingles, about 5 inches or one-third their 
length to the weather. 



DESIGN VII. 

&« Irregular gfortftern UUla. 




Fio.38. 



(100) 



DESIGN VII. 

Jta f myxUt Qttthtm With. 

Bold, beautiful, and peculiar in its manifestation of 
architectural style, this villa is well adapted to the 
highest requirements of social life; on the shore of the 
Northern lake, at the foot of the majestic mountain, 
or by the waters of the swift-flowing river, seems to 
be its accordant site; its tone is not in unison with the 
gentle slope or the level plain, — all its surroundings 
should be in keeping with the distinctive liveliness of 
its character. We call it Northern because of the 
aspiring tendency of its roof and towers, and the 
adaptation of its interior arrangements to the habits 
and customs of Northern living. 

Apartments. — The front door is in the tower; the 
vestibule D, fig. 39, entered by it is nine feet square, 
and affords ingress to the drawing-room A and the 
front hall G. The drawing-room is 18 by 33 feet, and 
is further extended in the direction of its length by a 
very fine bay-window, and is also capable of being fur- 
ther enlarged in the opposite direction, by opening the 
sliding door to the library C, a room of 18 by 11 feet. 
The fire-place in this room occupies one corner, and a 
suggestion is offered by the single line drawn in each 
for the manner of furnishing the others, which can be 
executed with excellent effect. The dining-room B, 

(101) 



102 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



22 by 17 feet, is a fine, well lighted apartment, com- 
municating with the kitchen E, by the passage H. 
The kitchen is 17 by 20 feet, and has an appendage 
P of 10 by 15 feet; this seems to us ample provision 
for the use of the culinary department. The private 
stairs, and two fine closets for the dining-room and 
kitchen, are entered from the passage H. On the 
second or chamber floor, fig 40, we find K, L, M, fine 




Fio. 89.— Pwhcipal Floor. 



Fio. 40.— Secoxd Floor. 



chambers; N, a bath-room; P, a dressing-room; and 
O, a sleeping-room for servants. The principal stairs 
are intended to continue to the loft, where sufficient 
space will be found for at least three good bed-rooms: 
from this floor the tower is reached through a passage 
made by an elevation of the roof for the purpose, and 
a stairway within it affords the means of reaching 
the upper section or observatory, a light, lantern-like 



AN IRREGULAR NORTHERN VILLA. 



103 



structure, from which the surrounding country may be 
viewed in every direction. 

Construction. — This design may be built of brick 
or stone, and stuccoed. We therefore suggest that 
it be built of rubble-stone, and the external surface 
of the outer walls coated with rough- cast, the vous- 
aoirs or arch-stones of the large triple window be- 
ing dressed and allowed to project, say an inch 
beyond the face of the rough-casting. All the hoods 
over the windows can be run with cement, a pro- 
jection having been arranged for them in the stone 
work; this is done with very little trouble, as no pre- 
cision is required in its execution. The roof should 
be of slate, laid on close sheathing; a manifest im- 
provement would be cutting the visible portion of the 
slate after the form of some of the ornamental pat- 
terns exhibited in detail in another part of this volume. 
The brackets under 
the eave cornice are 
merely a continua- 
tion of the rafters 
planed off and modi- 
fied by a slight curve, 
as shown by fig. 41, 
the under side of the 
sheathing reaching 
over the face of the wall being also smoothed off. 
The barge-board is eighteen inches wide and cut from 
a two-inch plank in the manner represented by fig. 42. 
The veranda will be covered with tin, the posts being 
about seven inches square and the inter-bracket or 
head, which gives the Gothic character, cut from the 
solid plank. The exterior coloring of this building, 




Fxo. 41. 



104 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



in view of the piquancy of its style and its prominence 
as a feature of the landscape, may be darker than 
any design we have yet offered, while at the same 




Pig. 43. 



time we would avoid all the heaviness of effect pro- 
duced by lifeless, muddy tints. 

With regard to the interior finish, we will only re- 
mark in this place, that all the dressings and wain- 
scoting may be of oak and slightly stained, and after- 
ward varnished; the staining heightens and maintains 
the natural color of the wood; we cannot say that we 
would prefer this mode of finish in the drawing-room, 
yet we have very good authority for applying it to 
any well-lighted apartment, always provided that the 
lightest cast of wood be selected and no inferior work- 
manship permitted to mar the acknowledged beauty 
of the material. 

Estimate. — Built of rubble-stone and rough-cast, 
with a slate roof, the first-story windows having in- 
side blinds, and otherwise finished as we have pointed 
out, the cost of this villa, in any portion of the 
Northern or Middle States, will not exceed $9500. If 
brick instead of stone were used, the cost would be in- 
creased to about $10,000. 



DESIGN VIII. 

HUfctl $mbtnce tax a ifepiehn. 




Fro. 43. 




Fio. 44.— Pmncipal Floor. 



Fio. 46.— Second Floor- 



(1T6) 



DESIGN VIII. 
odd §tMmt for a fftpwim 



One of the simplest of all forms — the parallelogram 
— furnishes the basis of this design. But little beauty 
ordinarily exists in a structure erected on this plan; 
yet the hands of a skillful designer may do much to- 
ward redeeming it from the repulsive baldness which 
is too frequently exhibited even in the better class of 
country houses. If the design before us were divested 
of its verandas and dormers, and a plain hip-roof sub- 
stituted for the curved Mansard, with the exception in 
its favor of chimney tops and window blinds, it would 
puzzle the amateur to decide whether it should be 
called a human habitation or a diminutive cotton- 
factory. But the features above named effectually 
redeem it from the imputation of leaving the passing 
traveler in doubt as to its true purpose. 

This residence has been erected and is now occupied 
by Dr. E. C. Evans, in the vicinity of West Chester, 
Penn. The plans and elevation were prepared by us 
under his eye, and in accordance with directions and 
suggestions which he offered during the course of their 
preparation. Since its erection, he has expressed his 
satisfaction in decided terms with the result of our 
combined efforts. Our readers will permit us to add, 
that Dr. Evans is a gentleman of close observation and 

(107) 



108 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

acknowledged intelligence, and while many may dis- 
pute his taste, but few can find fault with his judg- 
ment: an investigation of the plan of his dwelling will 
go far to sustain us in the latter allegation. 

Accommodation. — The front entrance is effected 
through the end veranda H, fig. 44, into the hall A, 
12 by 21 feet, which, besides containing the staircase, 
is ample enough for a small company to resort to for 
conversation in the pleasant days of summer: being 
provided with a fire-place, it would be an excellent 
place at any season for the entertainment of such 
visitants as are too unscrupulous with regard to the 
state of their boots to be admitted to the parlor. So 
much for the hall. On the left, as we enter, we ob- 
serve B, 17 by 15 feet, one of the cosiest little parlors 
that you can well imagine; just the right size to enter- 
tain all your country acquaintances in, that might feel 
slighted by being invited to the dining-room. This 
apartment, designated by the letter C, is 15 by 20 feet. 
Beyond is a snug little chamber D, 12 feet square: this 
would perhaps be the best apartment for an office; 
change the window next the veranda, H, to a door, 
and we have at once an entrance for the admission of 
such patients as might prefer coming to see the 
"doctor" instead of his visiting them. A possible, but 
less convenient location for an office would be on the 
second floor, over the hall; a serious objection to this, 
however, would be the abuse of the principal stairs, and 
especially the stair carpets. The kitchen E is 15 by 
12 feet, and entered from the front hall or the dining- 
room at pleasure, and has a back door, as every kitchen 
ought to have; but, by a little inattention, no steps 
have been provided for it, much less any shelter which 



MODEL RESIDENCE FOB A PHYSICIAN. 



109 



might assume the several forms of piazza, summer 
kitchen or wood shed. F and G are pantries, adjacent 
to which is a flight of private stairs. 

On the second floor, fig. 45, we find five chambers 
provided with closets; from the passage P, we ascend 
to the attic floor. We must, however, not neglect the 
bath-rooms, L and M; the former containing a water- 
closet, well ventilated by a flue 
connecting with the range flue 
from the kitchen. On the attic 
plan, fig 46, in which the perpen- 
dicular dimensions of the rooms 
are obtained entirely in the 
height of the roof, and the 
light received from the dormer 
windows, the chambers are 
represented by R, S being the 
hall, T the trunk-room, and U 
closets. 

Construction. — This design is intended to be built 
of brick, and rough-cast, and the roof overlaid with 
shingles. A little ornamentation bestowed on the 
exposed ends of these would be in perfect keeping with 
the style of the building. The verandas should be of 
oak, and stained a little so as to resemble old oak; sim- 
ilar treatment might be bestowed on all the exposed 
wood-work with very good effect, — of course observ- 
ing that the external surface of the wall should 
be colored to harmonize with it. The window 
heads and chimney caps may be dressed stone. The 
interior should be finished up in a style of perfect 
harmony with the exterior, substantial but not ornate. 
The proprietor may exert his taste in the selection of 

7 




Yiq. 46.— Attic Floor. 



110 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

paper for the walls; the balance of the decoration must 
be left to the plasterer and painter, — observing care- 
fully, however, that no very rich ornaments or striking 
contrasts of color are to be permitted. 

Estimate. — The estimate for this design, in the 
neighborhood of West Chester, was $3000; but we 
think it was probably built for a little less under the 
careful management of the proprietor. 



DESIGN IX. 

J, Small 9Mi in t\t f flintti Stale. 




Fio. 47. 




Fig. 48.— PmcfdPAi Fioo*. 



ai3< 



DESIGN IX. 
% £ matt fill* in the f oittUd J^tyle. 

Very home-like and coUntry-like in its appearance, 
and yet withal manifesting, too plainly to be misun- 
derstood, that something more is intended than the 
mere expression of purpose, this design presents a 
favorable specimen of the development of pointed 
architecture as applied to rural building. While the 
high-pitched roof exhibits the principles of the pointed 
style so strongly as to give the structure its name and 
character, it will be observed that many minor devia- 
tions are made in the details: these, founded on util- 
ity, are not sufficient to detract from the characteristic 
expression of lively aspiration communicated to the 
building as a mass, by its governing features, its roofs 
and gables. The deviations alluded to are the seg- 
mental window heads and the flat-roofed verandas, 
with their semicircular interbrackets. 

A residence built after this design would be suitable 
for the occupancy of a small family of considerable 
means, who wish to live in good style yet do not expect 
to give a great amount of entertainment. 

Accommodation. — Whether we have made the 
proper arrangements for the above-mentioned purpose 
or not, will appear upon an investigation of the plans. 
Beginning with the first floor, fig 48, we find a very 
neat veranda, eight feet wide, stretching around the 

(118) 



114 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



greater portion of the front: from this the main hall 
A, 12 by 32 feet, is entered: this contains a fine stair- 
case, and affords a delightful assembling place for the 
home circle during long summer evenings; and it 
occurs to us that a piano would be a very appropriate 
part of its summer furniture. We are very partial 
to this elevation of the character of the hall, which in 
a vast number of houses }s of little more importance 
than a mere passage or thoroughfare to the other 
rooms, including generally a stairway within its limits, 
and that sometimes an unsightly object. B is the 
drawing-room, 24 by 16 feet; C, the dining-room, 
21 by 16, provided with a good china closet. We 
think the drawing-room, as well as the appearance of 
the house, • would be greatly improved by a veranda 
extended along its flank. D is the kitchen, 12 by 17 
feet, with a sink at one side of the fire-place: it is also 



] nun 




Pie. «^-8iooin) Fiaob. 



provided with a closet and private stairs. On the 
second floor, fig. 49, we find three delightful chambers, 
F; L, M, and I are closets, and 6 and H small 
bed-rooms. Snug sleeping-rooms may be fitted up in 
the roof, lighted by the dormer windows. 



A SMALL VILLA IN THE POINTED STYLE. 115 

Construction. — This is another example in which 
we would suggest the use of quarry stone with very 
little dressing, the joints being pointed up neatly on 
the exterior surface: we have seen excellent effects 
produced by the introduction of coloring matter into 
the mortar; when the color of the stone is very light, 
the pointing mortar may be of a dark lead color, but, 
on the contrary, if the stone be inclined to a somber 
cast, the joints should be white or nearly so. The roof 
being framed to rest on wall plates and ridge pieces, 
is designed to be boarded over and covered with slates 
cut diamond shape. Great care should be exercised 
in the construction of the dormers, and also of the 
main valleys; one of the greatest objections urged 
against roofe of irregular outline is their increased 
liability to get out of repair, and leak. We have 
already observed that copper is an excellent material 
for such valleys, large or small. For the longest valley 
in the roof before us, a strip of two-pound copper, 
twenty inches wide, well seamed and soldered at the 
cross joints, and carefully laid, will be found weather 
proof and lasting. The ridges may be covered 
with the same material: to effect this properly, a 
strip of wood, say one and a half inches thick, is run 
along the ridge, secured to the sheathing or rafters, ex- 
tending at least one and a half inches above the sur- 
face of the slate ; a ten-inch strip of copper is then 
laid over this and fastened with iron clasps, care 
being taken that the copper is not pierced. These 
clasps should be placed about two feet apart and fit 
tightly over the copper, so as to prevent its displace- 
ment by the wind. The slope of the veranda roof 
indicates that metallic covering for it is indispensa- 



116 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

ble ; for this, tin will be found much better than cop- 
per, and has the additional recommendation of being 
less expensive. We have already said enough on the 
subject of cellars to convince any one of their utility, 
even laying aside all consideration of their usefulness 
as a place of storage, etc: It will be observed, how- 
ever, that the very moderate elevation given to the 
principal floor of this design would occasion con- 
siderable labor in the excavation of a cellar of the 
usual depth. Should it therefore not be desirable to 
have this underground storing room, it will still be 
necessary to remove the earth from beneath the 
flooring joists to the depth of at least two feet, and 
leave openings in the walls for the free admission of 
air, but so defended with gratings or screens as to 
exclude domestic animals. 

Estimate. — Erected in a substantial and workman- 
like manner, with the walls and ceilings all done in 
hard finish, terra-cotta chimney caps, and copper val- 
leys, this design will cost, in this vicinity, about $4000, 
it being understood that every part of the work is 
executed in first-rate style. 



DESIGN X. 

flilla in tjjt Italian StjU. 




Fio.50. 





Fio. 51.— Principal Floor. 



Fig. 52w— 3ioo5D Floor. (118) 



DESIGN X. 

^ f ilia in the Italian ftjjk 

The dignity, refinement, and elegance in the lead- 
ing features of this villa create the impression, on 
sight, that it is a gentleman's residence. It indi- 
cates varied enjoyments, a life of refined leisure, and 
abounds with tokens of a love of social pleasures. 
Viewing it in a more strictly architectural sense, the 
exterior of this design is worthy of particular notice 
for the harmony which pervades it. Although a great 
diversity of outline and detail is exhibited, no discord 
is visible. Such a residence requires a site in the 
midst of a fertile, cultivated country, and needs for 
its surroundings a full share of such embellishments 
as can be chosen and arranged only by the well- 
educated landscape gardener. These include not only 
trees and shrubbery, but summer-houses, and garden 
ornaments, such as statuary and vases, all of which 
require the utmost degree of artistic ability for their 
disposal. Of course, when within the limits of the 
intended outlay, marble or bronze statuary is always 
to be preferred to any substitute that could be named; 
but where these are, from their costliness, out of 
the question, terra-cotta or iron may be introduced 
with propriety: the greatest objection to either being 
the want of that fineness of detail communicated by 
the sculptor's chisel. Iron, being likely to corrode 

(119) 



120 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

from exposure to the weather, requires a great 
deal of attention, which, by the way, is a matter 
to be considered in connection with the subject of 
cost. Terra-cotta is free from any such liability, and 
is therefore preferable, at least for such ornaments as 
are likely to fall under close inspection. The term, 
simply signifying " baked clay," is applied to all pro- 
ductions of the art of pottery bearing an artistic 
stamp. Thus, all such articles as are intended for 
mere practical use, without reference to appearance, 
we call "pottery," but anything of an ornamental 
character, such as statuary, capitals of columns, chim- 
ney-tops, vases, etc., with the addition of a little extra 
care in the execution and finish, is entitled to the ap- 
pellation of "terra-cotta." A few words more for the 
exterior of Design X., which we think affords some- 
thing of a study for the amateur. It is irregular in 
its outline, but it is that sort of irregularity so highly 
admired by the artist, — an irregularity that, so far 
from being attributable to any accidental or violent 
causes, seems to have grown so, as naturally as the 
forest tree shoots forth irregular branches at irregular 
intervals, and no one can tell the reason why, or 
suggest a better place or a better form for them to 
grow in. 

Accommodation. — The piazza in front, fig. 51, 
makes a pleasant approach to the main hall. At the 
point of entrance this is 9 feet wide, but it presently 
expands to 16 feet, which gives ample room for a fine 
flight of stairs. B, the reception-room, is 18 feet 
square. This is the first story of the tower, which 
forms the central feature in the elevation. The 
drawing-room A is 18 by 33 feet, with a veranda 



A VILLA IN THE ITALIAN STYLE. 121 

extending its fall length. The library or office C is 
18 by 16 feet, and can boast of a snug little bay-win- 
dow. Just beyond the library is a side entrance, 
which separates the dining-room, etc. from the front 
portion of the house. E, the dining-room, is 24 by 
16. From this, as well as the drawing-room, the 
conservatory K, 14 by 16 feet, is entered. The con- 
servatory is an indispensable feature in the complete 
villa, and is therefore worthy of the architect's serious 
attention. In another part of this volume we offer 
some hints as to the mode of their construction, 
warming, etc., to which we refer the reader. F is 
represented as a sort of lobby, but we w;ould suggest 
that the door next the passage be closed, by which an 
excellent butler s pantry is formed. The apartment 
6 is 16 feet square, and is destined for a servants' 
hall or housekeeper's room, as the requirements of 
the family may dictate. H, the kitchen, is also 16 
feet square. Beyond this, the summer kitchen I 
affords shelter for the carrying on of such domestic 
labor as can not well be performed in the limits of the 
kitchen proper. On the second floor, fig. 52, we have 
four excellent chambers, A, B, C, D, all provided with 
closets, and all accessible from the main hall. It will 
be observed that the level of the floor of the bed- 
rooms G and F is below that of the other apartments. 
These are, however, reached from the landing of 
the private stairs by a flight of steps in the passage. 
Of the remaining rooms, H or I may be converted 
into a bath-room, E being so situated and lighted as 
to be a very pleasant chamber. 

Construction. — Brick walls, built hollow, would 
be our choice; the exterior stuccoed, and colored in 



122 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

light, warm tints, with all the dressings and cornices 
a few shades darker, would be in excellent harmony 
with the character of the design. The pitch of the 
roof indicates a demand for metallic covering. 

Estimate. — The cost of this building cannot be 
definitely arrived at without detailed specifications; 
but we are confident that it can be finished up in a 
very good, consistent style for about $15,000. We 
mean, of course, in localities where the cost of labor 
and material does not exceed that of Philadelphia. 



DESIGN XL 

Cottage toitjf frantattlr $00t 




Fio. 53*. 





Fig. 53.— Principal Floor. 



Fio. 64.— Srookb Floor. (124) 



DESIGN XL 

One thing should never be lost sight of in the 
selection of any distinct and striking style of build* 
ing: this is, that its peculiarity and piquancy must 
either be modified to suit a quiet landscape, or, if re- 
tained, then a situation should be chosen in which 
the style will form an accordant feature in the scene. 
But, as in many cases the site and the character of 
the surrounding scenery are "fixed facts," it then be- 
comes the duty and business of the architect to make 
such modifications in the details of the style chosen 
as are necessary to establish harmony between the 
natural and artificial features of the landscape. Here- 
in is the peculiar sensitiveness of the artist dis- 
played. The builder may erect permanent edifices, 
but the skill and perception of the artist alone can 
determine beforehand whether his labors shall mar or 
beautify the scenery, of which they are henceforth to 
be a part. The design before us is highly suggestive 
on this point. It is picturesque, yet subdued and 
chastened in picturesqueness, and much less bold and 
rude than it might have been with propriety, if placed 
in the midst of wild forest or mountain scenery. And 
by what means is this taming down accomplished?' 
Simply by truncating the gables of the roof, a process 
against which the radical constructionist is prone to 

(186) 



126 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

• 

exclaim in no moderate terms, but which we defend, 
on the ground that the artist, like the poet, is en- 
titled to his license. From these remarks, it will 
be readily inferred that Design XI., essentially bold 
and striking, has been subjected to such modification 
as was deemed requisite to bring it into keeping with 
comparatively quiet, natural scenery. - 

Accommodation. — A very neat and effective piazza 
A is at once the main central feature (fig. 53) and 
front entrance. Entering from this, we find ourselves 
in a passage of moderate dimensions, from which we 
may enter at pleasure the snug little sitting-room C, 
8 by 14 feet, ascend the main stairs at G, or initiate 
ourselves into the very model of a cottage parlor, de- 
signated by B, 14 by 15 feet. D is the dining-room, 
14 by 18 feet, with an excellent closet H; E, the 
kitchen, 10 feet square, having a private stairway; 
and F, a lean-to for a wood shed, or appendage to the 
kitchen. In case the water for household use is to 
be procured from a well, it would be very convenient 
indeed to have the pump beneath this or an adjoining 
shelter. A very serviceable veranda, approached from 
the passage 6, is worthy of note, and it would, no 
doubt, be desirable, in most cases, to have an en- 
trance door from this to the dining-room. 

Inspecting the second floor, fig. 54, we find M, the 
landing of the principal stairs, affords access to the 
rooms J, K, L, M, 0, while P and Q are reached from 
the private stairs. Bed-rooms may be fitted up in the 
space afforded by the pitch of the roof. These could 
best be reached by placing a small stairway in the 
apartment K. 

We have thought, while preparing this design, that 



A COTTAGE WITH TRUNCATED ROOF. 127 

its arrangements, although in conformity with the 
requirements of almost any small, thrifty family, are 
such as might be frequently sought after for a country 
parsonage. In the event of its adoption as the home 
of a minister, the dining-room would necessarily be* 
come a start of living-room ; the little sitting-room C 
would be transformed into a library or study; and 
Hie parlor B used only for the entertainment of select 
company. This is all founded on the assumption, 
either that the minister has no family, or that one of 
the chambers on the second floor P might be used as 
a nursery, should such a convenience be found requi- 
site. 

Construction. — It is evident that this cottage may 
be constructed of brick, stone, or wood, without detri- 
ment to its architectural expression. We may here 
indicate a method of execution which, under certain 
circumstances, presents a very agreeable appearance : 
we mean, to use very light-colored bricks in the outer 
facing, — as near what are called mlnwnrbricfa as may 
be ventured without endangering the durability of 
the walls. Now, in view of the comparative import- 
ance of the roof as a feature of the composition, the 
prominence of the verandas and cornices, and the 
smallness of the masses of wall exhibited, it will be 
perceived that, with relation to the effect of the 
building as a whole, the walls become a subordinate 
part, and will be found, particularly if surrounded by 
as full an apportionment of foliage as such a cottage 
should have, to present but little of that trying harsh- 
ness manifested in the preponderance of huge brick 
masses. Where this mode is adopted, a very neat 
quality of workmanship is required in laying the 



128 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



brick ; the lighter shades of pressed bricks would of 
all be the most suitable to the proposed quality of the 
work. Slate should be preferred for roofing this cot- 
tage, but shingles could be very satisfactorily used, 
with considerably less expenditure. 

Estimate. — Judging from the cost of similar de- 
signs executed under our especial notice, we would 
place the cost of the cottage before us at $3800, if 
common bricks were exclusively used; if pressed 
bricks were used for facing, $4000, — the roof in both 
cases being slate, laid in varied patterns, and a cellar 
six feet deep being excavated under the whole house. 




DESIGN XII. 

Suburban 0Ma— $0. 2. 




Fro. 65. 




Fia. 56.— Principal Floor. 



(1») 



DESIGN XII. 

& 9 nhuthm f itl», 

[No. 2.] 

Here is a villa pre-eminently expressive of archi- 
tectural style, and in which the manifestation of ab- 
solute beauty predominates over that of relative. It 
demands plainly a preference of solid materials for its 
construction, and a careful attention to the proportion 
and finish of detail. Stone, therefore, would be "the 
most appropriate material for the facing of the walls; 
but a less expensive method would be to build it of 
very fine, smooth brick, laid with what the masons 
call flush-joints, i.e. the mortar cut off in a line with 
the face of the brick-work, and not tucked or pressed 
in, as is usually done. Then, after the lapse of 
considerable time, the exterior may be rubbed down 
with a sharp sandstone, and brushed off, and the sur- 
face thus formed be painted and sanded in warm 
stone tints. 

Although we have engraved Design XII. in the 
midst of a snow-scene, yet it would evidently make a 
very good Southern house. The addition of a ve- 
randa on each side of the tower and external window- 
blinds would be sufficient to make it passable as such. 
It would be very desirable, if built in the South, to 
locate it with the front to the northward. 

Accommodation. — But, for the purpose of descrip- 

(131) 



132 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

tion, we assume it to be a Northern residence. A, 
a delightful vestibule, 15 feet square, (fig. 56,) is large 
enough to answer the twofold purpose of vestibule 
and ante-room. The drawing-room B, 20 by 40 feet, 
is entered from the stair hall K, through folding-doors. 
At the opposite end of the room another pair of fold- 
ing-doors gives admittance to the dining-room D, an 
apartment 25 by 16 feet, to which a china closet 
E, of fair dimensions, is attached. C, 20 feet square, 
is a nice, agreeable sitting-room or library. F is an 
excellent pantry, readily subject, if necessary, to 
the control and inspection of the mistress. A very 
nice arrangement is effected by intervening a passage 
of 7 feet wide between the apartments we have just 
described and the domestic offices. This passage not 
only affords access to the kitchen, but also to a little 
store-room. It contains the private stairs, and affords 
a front and rear entrance. A great desideratum 
gained here is the opportunity afforded to cut off 
from the dining-room, by a through current of fresh 
air, all scent of cookery in the kitchen. This is a 
erne qua rum in a Southern house, when the kitchen 
is allowed to be connected with the residence, which, 
indeed, is seldom admissible further South than Vir- 
ginia or Tennessee. G, the kitchen, is 18 by 24 feet, 
and provided with a nice closet L. Unfortunately, 
by an oversight in the preparation of the cut, no 
jambs are shown for a kitchen range. These, how- 
ever, should be built in the wall, between the kitchen 
and the summer kitchen H, so that a flue from the 
latter can be carried up in the same stack. 

Proceeding to the chamber floor, fig. 57, we find 
six fine chambers, respectively marked N. Three of 



A SUBURBAN VILLA, NO. 2. 



133 



them have ample closets, while the others will require 
wardrobes in addition to the usual articles of chamber 
furniture. is designed for a dressing-room, on the 




Fig. 57.— Chamber Floor. 



assumption that the adjacent chambers may be occu- 
pied by sisters, in which case the dressing-room will 
be convenient for both. A bath-room and water- 
closet are shown at R. The bed-rooms P, being 
situated over the kitchen, are on a level with the 
half-pace of the private stairs, and consequently below 
the line of floor in the main building. This requires 
a flight of steps in the longitudinal passage, for the 
purposes of direct communication. A flight of close 
stairs, by which the attic floor may be attained, occu- 
pies a convenient position. The divisions on the 
attic floor may correspond in size and number 
with those exhibited by the chamber plan, with the 
exception, of course, of those in the side building, 
which is not carried to this height. A little stairway 
from the attic floor leads to the upper section of the 
tower, a place that is occasionally interesting to both 
occupants and visitors. A small mounted telescope, 
or even a strong spy-glass, such as mariners use, adds 
considerably to the interest of the place. 

8 



134 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

Construction.— We have already hinted our pre- 
ference for stone in the execution of this design, and 
also suggested another method for the exterior wall, 
which, if not equally satisfactory, might be rendered 
very pleasing. To this we might also add the expe- 
dient of stuccoing, which, done in the best manner, is 
applicable even to first-rate buildings. The interior 
walls will all be of brick. It will be observed that 
the rooms on the first floor are all provided with fire- 
places, while the chambers have none. This is ex- 
plained by the fact that the plan was prepared with 
reference to the application of cellar-furnaces for 
warming. 

The roof is intended to be covered with painted 
tin, and the gutters formed of the same material, in 
the projection of the cornice. The chimney-tops, if 
not executed in stone, can be neatly done with 
cement, a process requiring considerable skill in the 
plasterer, but much practiced for the sake of economy. 

Estimate. — Faced on the exterior with fine ashlar, 
the cost of this villa will be about $11,000 ; built of 
brick, in either of the modes prescribed, with stone 
quoins, balcony, and window-heads, $2000 might be 
deducted, assuming that the stone could be procured 
in the vicinity. 



DESIGN XIII. 

Lit Irregular §ratkettb tantrj $ant. 




Flo. 58. 



(136) 



DESIGN XIII. 

We might, with almost equal propriety, have 
termed this a farm-house. The only objection to 
this is the probability of impressing the reader with 
the idea that its application would be accordingly 
restricted. Indeed, it almost deserves the name of 
villa; but the total absence of ostentation in its ex- 
ternal aspect inclines us to the appellation we have 
bestowed upon it, notwithstanding the villa-like ex- 
tent of its accommodations. Plain, sensible, and 
solid, it is within the reach and applicable to the 
circumstances of many who love convenience without 
ambitious display, and who prefer dignified plainness 
to gingerbread ostentation. Architecturally, this de- 
sign aims at being a country dwelling, manifesting 
the dignity, comfort, and substantial character of 
social life that is attainable in the country. There 
is a growing demand for this class of dwellings. 
Farmers are becoming rich, merchants and manufac- 
turers are retiring from business; and we know that 
while the frank modesty of the farmer seldom allows 
him to aspire to towers or pinnacles, nine out of ten 
of retired citizens are too plain and practical in their 
views to seek for more than the embodiment of the 
various accommodations suited to their modes of life, 
at the lowest grade of expense requisite to give them 

(137) 



J 



138 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

a tasteful and substantial home. Since we have held 
these points in view, our motive for the comprehen- 
sive appellation "country-house" will be at once per- 
ceived. Suggestive not only of home comfort, but of 
the pleasure of social existence, the internal arrange- 
ments are in conformity to the demands of a life of 
business or a life of leisure, while the outward evi- 
dence, furnished by the elevation, goes far to sustain 
the idea that the proprietor, if not in possession of 
an unlimited store of wealth, has been touched by 
the spirit of elevated taste, and has declared his in- 
spiration in language susceptible of no double meaning. 

The scene chosen to accompany this design is evi- 
dently agricultural. We regret that the idea was not 
more elaborated in the engraving, to show at least a 
carriage-house and stables; but since our chief object 
is the improvement of human dwellings, we hope the 
absence of appendages will not be chargeable to us as 
a serious deficiency. Yet the importance of out- 
buildings of a tasteful and appropriate character is 
undeniable; while the abodes of the "lords of crea- 
tion" are entitled to our earliest and most earnest 
consideration, the necessary useful surroundings should 
not be forgotten; and if we have neglected to notice 
them, or make them a conspicuous portion of this 
work, it is only because our limits will not allow that 
extended and thorough treatment of the subject which 
its importance demands. 

Accommodation. — A veranda G, fig. 59, furnishes 
the entrance way to the main hall D. A drawing- 
room A, 14 by 26 feet, entered by folding-doors from 
the hall, forms a very interesting portion of this plan, 
on account of relative situation, its modest little bay- 
window, and the adjoining veranda, which is ap- 



AN IRREGULAR BRACKETED COUNTRY HOUSE. 139 



preached through lengthened windows, and commu- 
nicates in the same manner with the sitting-room. 
This sitting-room, marked B, is 22 by 14 feet, and 




Fio. 69.— Peihcipal Floor. 



Fw. flo.— Sioom> Floor. 



communicates directly with the drawing-room and 
main hall. This hall is 12 feet square, and a passage, 
containing the main stairway, leads to the rear en- 
trance, and affords communication with the kitchen 
and private stairs. An arch thrown over the stair 
passage, at its junction with the hall D, will give the 
latter a complete individuality, and will be not only 
productive of effect as a feature, but gives opportu- 
nity for the introduction of a separate and dissimilar 
cornice, and, in short, establishes for the main hall a 
character exclusively its own. 

A dining-room, 17 by 24 feet, furnished with china 
closet, and entered from the main hall, is located in 
the front portion of the house. With the facilities 
attendant on the mode of service which generally 



140 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

obtains in the style of living of which this house 
is assumed to 'be an exponent, all the fixtures of 
the table can be promptly removed, and the apart- 
ment, under the auspices of youthful management, 
becomes a scene of social and even sportive enjoy- 
ment. The private stairs are situated between the 
dining-room and kitchen, communicating with a small 
lobby, which is intended for a passage between these 
apartments. The kitchen E, 14 by 20 feet, is pro- 
vided with a side entrance, and a very respectable 
appendage, 12 by 14 feet, which may be used as a 
pump-shed, wood-house, or bakery. In the latter 
case a suitable oven will be built, so as to vent its 
smoke into the kitchen chimney. 

By reference to the plan of the second floor, fig. 
60, it will be observed that the chambers are respect- 
ively designated. by the letter H. I is the hall, and 
K the roofs of verandas. Good bed-rooms may be 
fitted up in the garret, care being taken to provide 
for their ventilation, in addition to that afforded by 
the gable windows, the method of doing which is spe- 
cifically described in another part of this volume. 

Construction. — Brick, rough cast, with wooden 
cornices, and slate or shingle roof, may be indicated 
as the essential components of this structure. The 
verandas, however, require metallic roofing. The 
window-heads and sills should be stone. There is 
no absolute objection to building the walls of rubble- 
stone. The effect of this would be to make it look 
more essentially the home of the farmer "to the 
manor born." 

Estimate. — Built in the manner above described, 
the cost of this dwelling would not vary much from 
$6000. 



DE8IGN XIV. 

Small gttflnttfc tantrg flilh. 




Fio.61. 



LD H 



L ♦ 1 V T ■ D IH 
1 V ° ■ ■ 


•i 

A 
J 


L J J 

t 1 






Fro. 62.— Principal Flooe. 



Fro. 68.— Smcohd Flooe. (142) 



DESIGN XIV. 
f matt §mvtiitft Gothic W\\te. 

This design is presented as an example of what 
may be done in the embellishment of a Gothic resi- 
dence in the Decorated manner. This is a subdivision 
of the Pointed style, dating back to the thirteenth 
century, and considered the perfection of Gothic 
architecture. The Early English being the first in 
order of time, flourished in the twelfth century, but 
toward the latter end of the thirteenth was lost sight 
of in its more attractive successor, the Decorated. 
The chief characteristics of the former were small, lan- 
cet-pointed windows, (having no tracery, from which 
it has sometimes been termed the lancet-painted style,) 
and deeply cut mouldings with a few sculptured en- 
richments: the whole arrangement being productive 
of a bold and simple effect. The latter seems but a 
continuation of the Early English; its principal feat- 
ures are, large windows enriched with graceful, easy- 
flowing tracery, and a ruling richness of details; it 
prevailed throughout the greater portion of the four- 
teenth century, and was finally superseded by the 
Perpendicular, which is ranked as the last strictly 
Gothic style. 

Whether we have succeeded in investing the 
design before us with even a moderate share of the 
expression portrayed by the graceful, ever-upward 

(143) 



144 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

tendency of Decorated Gothic, we must leave to our 
readers to decide. The style in its purity is almost 
too poetical to be practical, and that artist who com- 
bines the two qualities without a jar, may be said to 
be successful indeed. And yet that we rank it 
among the possible achievements, may be readily 
inferred from the attempt here made. One of the 
principal objections attending the use of pointed 
windows, is the apparent necessity of abandoning all 
shutters or blinds; this we have proved in practice 
not to be an absolute consequence; the difficulty can 
be surmounted by building walls with a sufficient 
hollow to admit of sliding shutters, placed within or 
without the sash, as circumstances may dictate. This 
of course adds to the cost; but where this is not 
admitted as an objection, the pointed window can 
often be introduced with a very happy effect, — we 
mean in such designs as are under the influence of 
the pointed roof. 

Accommodation. — The entrance feature to this dwell- 
ing, B, fig. 62, is formed by Gothic piers and arches 
supporting a portion of the building, and may prop- 
erly be called a porch, although not so nearly inclosed 
as Gothic porches usually are. A is a carriage-drive. 
From either of these the staircase hall D, 14 by 14 
feet, is entered. C is a drawing-room, 14 by 19 feet, 
with a triple bay-window, a feature of frequent occur- 
rence in domestic architecture of the Gothic period. 
£ is the dining-room, 17 by 14 feet, worthy of marked 
notice on account of its fine octagonal bay, and capa- 
bility of extension by opening the folding or sliding 
doors to F, 14 by 14 feet, ordinarily intended as a 
sitting-room, but available as an addition to the din- 



SMALL DECORATED GOTHIC VILLA. 145 

ing-room on great festive occasions. A wide veranda 
G shelters the windows of drawing and sitting rooms, 
and would in most situations be a pleasant place of 
evening promenade. H, 12 by 16 feet, is the kitchen, 
having a side door to the veranda L, and a room 
attached for summer use K, 10 by 12 feet. M is a 
pantry with a small china closet. Adjacent to these 
the private stairs and a passage to a side entrance; a 
door also affords communication with the veranda L. 
We now notice the second or chamber floors, fig. 63. 
A, C, D, and E are all first-class chambers, reached 
from below by the main stairway and through the 
hall B. P is a dressing-room, H a large wardrobe, 
and 6 a sleeping-room entered from the half-landing 
of the private stairs. K a flat, which the country 
housekeeper would probably use for airing linen, etc., 
to which end a door is given to the room G. The pri- 
vate stairs are continued to what is properly termed 
the roof-story, which may be divided into bed»rooms, 
closets, etc., the light being obtained from the dormer 
windows. 

Construction. — This design was executed in the 
vicinity of Germantown some years ago, under our 
superintendence, and met with marked favor among 
the admirers of Gothic as applied to rural building. 
The cellar walls are built of stone, and dashed, i.e. 
roughly coated with mortar on the inside; cellar 
windows provided with grating; main walls built of 
brick, the exterior coated with stucco, or rough-cast; 
and the roof covered with slate of diamond form. 
The gable tracery is wood, carved from heavy plank; 
the verandas, drive, balconies, and pinnacles are also 
of wood, thoroughly painted and sanded. A furnace 



146 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

for warming' the building is located in the cellar, with 
brick air-chamber and the necessary conducting pipe* 
making a complete system for warming all the princi- 
pal apartments. 

Estimate. — With proper management in the pur- 
chase of materials, the cost of the above design, at 
Philadelphia rates of workmanship, completed in 
good style, is about $10,000. 



DESIGN XV. 

g, Cottage for a gUtfeanu ax &lnh 




Fia. 64. 





Fro. 65v— Pkutcipal Flook. 



Fig. 66.— Siookd Floor. (148) 



DESIGN XV. 

% €ott%$t for a pedant* ax ®Uvk. 

Simple, straightforward, and plain almost to a fault, 
this little cottage is the embodiment of the domestic 
accommodations usually required by the family of a 
mechanic in the neighborhood or suburbs of a town 
or inland city. Almost any mechanic, with a few 
years constant industry and perseverance, can call 
such a home his own. The same may be said of the 
diligent salesman or book-keeper. And when we call 
to mind, as the result of past observation, how many 
of each class are struggling under worse circumstances 
than the ownership of such a cottage would imply, 
we hope that none will think for a moment that we 
have marked the grade of their requirements too 
low, or dishonored them as a class by the appellation 
bestowed on the plain yet somewhat dignified dwell- 
ing represented by Design XV. The humblest me- 
chanic and the low-salaried clerk alike possess that 
innate pride, or more properly ambition, that poverty 
or misfortune cannot quench, nor anything but death 
destroy. Naturally aspiring and hopeful, they toil 
with high aims, and, if successful, the very experi- 
ences of their upward ascent fit them for the station 
which they reach; if unsuccessful, they only yield up 
their hopeful ambition with their latest breath. While 
they are proud to be American citizens, and enjoy the 
highest privileges that the world affords, a lively 

(149) 



150 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

sense of the onward and upward tendency of the hu- 
man race, tempered by a high regard for the rights of 
their fellow-beings, is a spur to their endeavors, and, 
as a consequence, they are found occupying a high 
rank in the scale of social existence, and it not unfire- 
quently occurs that the highest marks of preferment 
known in a democratic community are conferred on 
men who have started in life with a heavy odds 
against them. No better evidence than this can be 
adduced to prove the vital goodness of our institu- 
tions. An American rather glories than regrets that 
one of his distinguished countrymen dwelt in a log 
cabin, that another was a shoemaker, and another a 
printer. We have no "born great;" all that would 
be truly great have, happily, a chance to be so with- 
out reference to the accident of birth or inheritance. 

Rooms. — A neat veranda E, fig. 65, of trellis- 
work, gives the necessary shelter to the front en- 
trance; this opens into a vestibule which communi- 
cates in turn with the parlor A and the living-room 
B, and also with a flight of plain, close stairs. The 
dimensions of the parlor and living-room are respect- 
ively 14 by 18 feet; to the latter is appended a good 
closet D. Another closet F is opened from the front 
vestibule. The parlor and living-room are connected 
beyond the stairs by a passage which gives access to 
the rear veranda E. The kitchen C is 12 by 15 feet. 
On the second floor, fig. 66, H denotes the chambers, 
all provided with closets. 

Remark. — This house is intended to be built of 
wood on stone foundations, and will cost about 
$1000. 



DESIGN XVI. 

§ratkttei> tillage $tsihncf. 




Fio. 67. 



1 o 








f 












1 


=i 1 m 






1 "^ 


". .- """ ~r 


J 1 






B 








mtmjp^ 
























n 


]=j D | 










r 




1 B 




1 A 




F 


1 G 


f 












Hlfc- 









Fio. 68.— PW5CIP1L Floor. 



Fio. 60.— Sicoxb Floor. (162) 



DESIGN XVI. 

The first impression made on the mind of the 
beholder by this design, is that it bears the evidence 
of a bold individuality of character, and no doubt 
but a closer examination of ite merits would do much 
to strengthen that impression. No man who is 
easily influenced by the current of existing opinion 
would be likely to adopt such a one. It is the 
index of a mind inclined to seek and delight in a 
channel of its own, rather than continue in the well- 
worn course of popular precedent, or assimilate with 
the tide of prevailing fashion. There are thousands 
of such; institutions like ours foster and encourage 
that feeling of self-reliance which disdains to follow 
where all have the opportunity, and many the ability 
to choose a course for themselves. May the influence 
of education enable all such to avoid alike the ex- 
cesses of individual caprice and the dangerous vaga- 
ries of fashion. 

Accommodation. — On the first floor, fig. 68, E is a 
one-«tory veranda with a balcony over it; the arched 
interbrackets, cut from heavy plank, with the balus- 
trade above, give this a tasteful yet bold appearance. 
On entering, we find a hall seven feet wide, containing 
the stairs, and affording communication with every 
room on this floor, including the kitchen and rear 
veranda. A is a parlor, 15 by 21 feet; beyond it 
we have the little sitting-room or library D, 15 by 

(153) 



154 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

10 feet; the beauty as well as the value of this 
apartment would be considerably enhanced by fit- 
ting it up with tastefully arranged and decorated 
book-shelves; we mean of course incorporated as a 
permanent fixture of the room. The dining-room 
B is 15 by 19 feet, and has an excellent china closet 
at one side of the chimney, the passage to the kitch- 
en occupying the corresponding space on the other. 
The kitchen is 15 by 16 feet, and has a rear entrance. 
To make this more complete, a range might have been 
shown in the fire-place, with boiler and sink adjacent; 
this becomes more absolutely necessary where the 
water for domestic purposes is procured by piping 
from the public reservoir. Under all circumstances, 
it is a convenient arrangement, and where the ex- 
pense is not too serious an obstacle, the construction 
of a tank in the roof, to be filled by a force-pump at 
weekly or semi-weekly intervals, is highly recom- 
mended. The arrangements of second floor are 
clearly shown by fig. 69. 

Construction. — Either brick or wood may be em- 
ployed in the erection of this design; it has, however, 
been prepared with a view to the use of brick, the 
exterior walls either to be stuccoed, or, if built of fine 
material, rubbed down and painted. The brackets 
supporting the roof projection over the front veranda 
should be 5 or 6 inches thick, and may be effectively 
made of three equal thicknesses of plank nailed to- 
gether, the middle section receding, say half an inch, 
so as to show a sinking in the whole length of the 
face. 

Estimate.— $2500 will be found sufficient to erect 
this design as indicated. 



DESIGN XVII. 

lain $0ttittru f flast. 





H 




Fie. 71<— Prdtcxpii. Floob. 



158 



DESIGN XVII. 
f Ittitt $0ttttt*JJ §QM$t. 

Plain and unpretending as the exterior of this 
design may appear, it is nevertheless possessed of 
considerable merit as a comfortable and convenient 
dwelling. 

A mistake in the engraving, representing a very 
meager projection on the roof of the rear building, 
detracts from the appearance of the design as repre- 
sented, but was not observed in time for correction. The 
main roof projects 2i feet, and the roof just referred to 
ought to project at least 20 inches or 2 feet. A light 
iron veranda over the bay-window, approached from 
the chamber P by lengthened windows, would mate- 
rially benefit the expression of the edifice as a whole. 
The front veranda roof might be surrounded with a 
balustrade of plain design; the adoption of which 
would lead to an increase of dimensions in the ve- 
randa posts. 

Apartments. — By the inspection of the plan of the 
principal floor, fig. 71, it will be perceived that the 
dining-room B, 22 by 16 feet, is the largest apartment 
on this floor. 

D is a passage 6 feet wide, leading from the front 
entrance N to the staircase hall, and communicating 
with the sitting-room C as well as the dining-room B 
and parlor A. The parlor is 15 by 20 feet, with 

(157) 



158 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



an octagonal bay-window, and the sitting-room 15 
by 12 feet. A little piazza M shelters the side 
entrance to the staircase hall. Passing on to the 
rear, we find E a pantry, and G the kitchen, 15 by 
14 feet, with a closet I attached. H is a wash-house, 
17 by 10 feet, with a rear entrance. The object of 
the small apartments L and K is apparent: a deep 
well should be sunk, or an inclined sewer constructed 

beneath them. O, 
P, and Q denote the 
three best chambers 
on the second floor, 
fig. 72. R, entered 
from the half-pace of 
the stairs, is also a 
good chamber. 

Construction. — 
Nothing would be 
more suitable for the 
walls of this design 
than brick and stuc- 
co. The roof de- 
serves to be covered 
with slate, but, to 
keep down the cost, 
shingles may be sub- 
stituted. The win- 
dow-heads should be stone, and the verandas of wood ; 
the latter, as well as the main cornice, painted and 
sanded. 

Estimate. — Erected in the vicinity of Philadelphia, 
this house will cost in the neighborhood of $7000. 




Fro. 72.— Cbamm* Plait. 



DESIGN XVIII. 

Pohl §ntfoi*fc Cottage 




Fio. 73. 





PW. 74.— PlHTOTAL FLOOX. 



Fio. 75.— 8k»iO> Floor. ( 100 ) 



I 

7 



V 



DESIGN XVIII. 
odd §tMMt& Wattage. 



i There is something exceedingly piquant and pleas- 

ing about this little cottage; and if we were called 
upon to give a reason for the impression which its 
appearance produces, we would probably ascribe it to 
the fact of its having a well-defined character of its 
own. There is nothing very showy in its mien, and 

T ; yet it is such a cottage as would rarely fail to arrest 

the eye of the most careless beholder. Although 
ultra matter-of-fact people might accuse it of "put- 
ting on airs," we think a majority will agree with 
us that its dress, though bold and decided, is not un- 
becoming even to a cottage. And to the question, 

[ Who wants such a cottage ? we answer, Who would 

not delight to have it ? For we are persuaded that 
many will picture out their future country home with 
just such a cottage as this for its central feature, 
To such as may urge the smallness of its size as an 
objection, we would say that it may be considerably 
enlarged without detriment to its cottage character. 
Booms. — A, fig. 74, is a very neat, plain veranda, 

, giving shelter to the front door and the end win- 

dow of the parlor. D performs at once the office 
of passage and vestibule. From this we may enter 

Y at pleasure the parlor B, the dining-room F, or the 

kitchen E. This parlor is 14 by 11 feet, and is to be 

I 9 (161) 



162 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

particularly noticed for ite recessed window with per- 
manent seat. In perfect keeping with cottage living, 
two nice closets occupy the space on each side of the 
recess. On the principle that "from truth and use 
all beauties flow," this recessed window can boast of 
some claim to the attention of the domestic economist, 
even without an acknowledgment of any intrinsic 
merit. The dining-room, designated by the letter F, 
is 14 by 11 feet, and has a china closet H. E is the 
kitchen, also 14 by 11 feet, provided with a pantry 
6, and a back door. On the second floor, fig. 75, from 
the passage or lobby M, we reach the several cham- 
bers J, K, and L, all provided with suitable closets. 
It will be observed, on looking at the elevation, that 
a part of the height of this story is gained by throw- 
ing collar beams across from rafter to rafter, the 
height at the walls being five feet. This method is 
adopted with an eye to economy, and to prevent the 
building from reaching an altitude entirely inconsist- 
ent with its importance as a cottage. 

Construction. — We should, under favorable cir- 
cumstances, build this cottage of rubble-stone, and 
neatly point the exterior joints. Built of pale bricks 
neatly laid, and surrounded with a profusion of foliage, 
it would present a very agreeable appearance; but 
in the absence of foliage, the assistance of paint or 
stucco should be called in. 

Estimate. — This cottage may be built in some parts 
of this State, where building stone and timber abound, 
for about $1200. Built of brick, in the neighborhood 
of Philadelphia, the cost will not vary much from 
$1400, if all the work is done in good style. 



DESIGN XIX. 

f lattt&iion $tsthn«. 




FlO.W. 



(164) 



DESIGN XIX. 
ftttttttttitftt Qtti&tutt. 

We offer this as a systematic arrangement of the 
accommodations required for the family of a Southern 
planter, clothed with some pretensions to architect- 
ural style: to be brief, it is intended to be a practical 
yet pleasing embodiment of the mode of life practiced 
among the opulent and intelligent people of the 
Southern States. With due deference to those who 
have endeavored to inaugurate a better state of 
things, we remark that we have been forcibly struck, 
in traveling through the South, with the apparent 
indifference to orderly arrangement manifested in the 
distribution of the domestic apartments and offices. 
There are of course exceptions to this, where attempts 
have been made to improve on the old-fashioned 
random practices, with various degrees of success. 
But much remains to be done, and, as is usual in the 
development of any growing system, every step taken 
and every new ray of light received, seems to unfold 
a continually expanding range of improvement, and 
not only to exhibit in their true light the faults and 
deficiencies in the present condition of things, but also 
in a measure to foreshadow future progress, inspiring 
respect for what has already been attempted, and 
hopeful encouragement in view of what may yet be 
accomplished. 

(165) 



166 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



We give Design XIX. the title "Plantation Resi- 
dence," because it is eminently adapted to the peculi- 
arities of life on the plantation; and we call attention 
to it, both on account of its individual value and the 
hints which it affords to the planter who is in quest 
of a building plan. 

Its appointments are suggestive of the convenience, 
comfort, and pleasure to be enjoyed within a compara- 
tively moderate compass. 




■ yiimiiilliJiiiiiiiii ^ 

- J B 


it ■ 


It 

ll ! ¥ J 





-i-H- 



Fio. 77.— First Floor. 



Accommodation. — As will be perceived by the 
ground-plan, fig. 77, the design consists of a center 
building with two wings, the latter embracing the 
inferior offices. Every Southerner will assent to the 
propriety of this arrangement; the warmth of the 
climate and the mode of service alike demand that 
all cookery, washing, and, in short, everything re- 
quiring the constant use of fire, must be detached 
from the apartments designed for social intercourse. 
The entrance hall C, approached from the carriage- 
way, is 10 feet wide; this carriage-way, after leaving 
the hall steps, leads back to the outbuildings, for the 



PLANTATION RESIDENCE. 167 

accommodation of horses, carriages, etc. A, 12 feet 
diameter, is the library or office of the planter; one 
angle of this having a fire-place, the remaining ones 
are fitted up with book-shelves, making the plan of 
the apartment a regular octagon. In many cases it 
would no doubt be found best to make this a recep- 
tion-room; it is favorably situated for this, communi- 
cating, as it does, with the entrance hall and drawing- 
room B. The latter apartment is 18 by 24 feet, 
entered by folding-doors from the main hall, and 
partially surrounded by a veranda of 10 feet in 
width; D is a sitting-room, 18 by 18 feet; and E, a 
chamber, 12 by 18 feet. The dining-room E is 18 by 
20 feet — (this might be extended from 5 to 10 feet 
farther in the direction of its length without disad- 
vantage to the appearance of the building) — and com- 
municates with the drawing-room, hall, and rear ve- 
randa M, on which there is a flight of private stairs 
for the use of the servants. The kitchen K, 16 by 
16 feet, and the store-room L, 10 by 10 feet, are 
located in a separate building, with a passage I be- 
tween, for the delivery at the store-room of articles 
of domestic consumption. Over K and L, attained by 
a small flight of staira on the two-story veranda, are 
servants' sleeping-rooms. A ten-pin alley G, 10 by 30 
feet, and a smoking-room H, 12 by 16 feet, are placed 
near the carriage-way, opposite the main entrance. 
These rooms are rather suggestive than practical; no 
one will fail to perceive that they would be greatly 
benefited by increased dimensions, and that this in- 
crease could be readily made without detriment to 
external proportions. Over the smoking-room (the 
ten-pin alley being but one story in height) a room 



168 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 




Via. 78.— Sioojid Floor. 



may be fitted up for the porter and coachman. The 
% carriage-house is seen just 

beyond in the picture, 
which, by the way, is a 
reverse view from the plan. 
On the second floor, fig. 
78, we have W, the main 
hall from which we di- 
rectly enter the cham- 
bers M, O, P, R, S, and 
also reach the veranda T. 
Thus the servants coming 
up the back stairs on the 
veranda, can enter any 
chamber without passing through another, a deside- 
ratum in all first-class houses. 

Construction. — Although this design was prepared 
with a view to being erected of wood, it may with 
equal propriety and much more architectural fitness 
be. built of brick and stucco, the cornice and veran- 
das in either case being wood. The roof has pitch 
enough to admit of either slate or shingles. Unless 
situated upon a considerable eminence, the elevation 
of the principal floor should be materially increased. 
Estimate. — Built as we have indicated, this design 
would cost, at Philadelphia rates, about $10,500; for 
the latitude of Tennessee, from the best information 
we can obtain of the relative cost of building, about 
20 to 25 per cent, should be added. 



DESIGN XX. 

Countrs $0usc for anj Climate. 




Fio. 7». 





Fia. 80.— Principal Floob. 



Fxa. 81.— Sico5D Floob. (170) 



DESIGN XX. 

jSoutttrij §mwjm far m% (£\imU. 

A little examination into the merits of this design, 
as illustrated by the engravings of elevation and 
ground-plans, will satisfy any one that our title, if not 
entirely elegant, has not been chosen without some 
attention to the correctness of its application. While 
we are well aware that it is next to impossible to pre- 
pare plans embracing all the conditions made impera- 
tive by a great diversity of climate, we are not less 
sensible that compromises can be effected, greatly 
extending the application of a given plan with but a 
limited amount of local modifications. To the South- 
ern projector who may conceive a partiality for the 
idea here illustrated, we would say, give outside 
blinds and umbrage to all the windows, and build a 
detached kitchen, and you have a complete Southern 
house for a family of moderate size. The through 
hall, which effectually cuts off the dining apartment 
from the parlor and library, is a very liberal arrange- 
ment for a house of this size; and indeed this cir- 
cumstance, combined with its peculiar application in 
the plan before us, is the basis of the compromise 
here intended between the varieties of climate. An 
excellent expedient, and favorable to privacy and 
good ventilation, is to place a rising sash or head- 
light over each door, which can be opened or closed 

(1") 



172 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

by a cord. By doing this, the top of the door-dress- 
ings are kept in a line with those of the windows, 
without affecting the proportions of either feature. 

Accommodation. — The hall A, fig. 80, entered from 
a neat front veranda, is 9 feet wide, and contains the 
principal staircase. The parlor B is 16 by 22 feet. 
By opening the sliding-doors, the eye is greeted by 
the pleasing view of an octagonal bay-window; this 
is an appendage to the apartment C, a room 16 feet 
square, which would make a delightful sitting-room 
or library, according to the choice of the occupants. 
The dining-room D has two snug, little china closets. 
The kitchen E, 14 by 10 feet, has a closet and flight 
of private stairs. On the second floor, fig. 81, we find 
three good chambers, F, provided with closets, and two 
smaller ones, H and G, the latter entered from the pri- 
vate stairs. 

Construction. — Brick, stone, or wood are equally 
applicable to construction of this dwelling. If ordinary 
bricks or rubble-stone are used, it should be stuccoed; 
if built of wood, the framing should be boarded in 
the horizontal manner, the angles or corner posts 
being cased with vertical strips 5 or 6 inches wide, 
against which the abutting joint of the weather- 
boarding is made. A roof of shingles or slate is 
equally admissible, due provision having been made 
in the framing of the rafters for the greater weight 
of the latter. The execution of the joinery with 
well selected and seasoned wood, say white pine or 
cypress doors and dressings, yellow pine stairs with 
walnut hand-rail, etc., would be a satisfactory mode 
of internal finish. 

Estimate. — We put the cost of this, under the most 
favorable circumstances, at $3200. 



DESIGN XXI. 

runirj gtsfttnu i« tftt $al|}u jStjrlf. 




no. 82. 



(174) 



DESIGN XXL 

(6mtA%$ §tMmct in tht Jgrifcir 9tfit. 

This is a representation of a solid, comfortable 
house, not lavishly but neatly and carefully embel- 
,lished in the Gothic manner. The plan, as will be 
seen by inspection, is irregular, which, combined with 
the diversified roof-lines, is favorable to a picturesque 
effect; and this tendency is strengthened by the cor- 
nices and minor details. 

Apartments. — An examination of the plans will 
make it apparent that this is intended for the resi- 
dence of a family of culture and refinement, without 
any desire for ambitious display; they may be very 
wealthy and very hospitable, but choose to live remote 
from the vexations of fashionable life. The drawing- 
room A, 18 by 25 feet, is a first-class apartment; we 
cannot imagine any more delightful feature than its 
bay-window ; aside from its external effect as a part 
of the composition, it adds infinitely to the charac- 
ter of the room as a place of social enjoyment. The 
hall C is 8 feet wide, affording a thoroughfare from 
front to rear of the building; at right angles with it 
is the staircase hall, 9 feet wide. The sitting-room B 
is 18 by 25 feet, and may on special occasions be con- 
verted into a dining-room, although provision is made 
in E for a dining-room for the home circle. This 
room is 16 by 18 feet, and the kitchen adjoining is 12 
by 18 feet. The verandas H are worthy of notice. 

(H5) 



176 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE* 

The front entrance is indicated by a feature of more 
massive character than the veranda, which should be 
executed in stone, or whatever material the walls 
of the house may be. On the second floor we find 
three chambers. A, B, and C, and a dressing-room D; 
in the back building, entered from a passage on a 
level with the half-landing of the stairs, we find two 
bed-rooms G and H, and a bath-room K. The attic 
bed-rooms, lighted by dormer windows, are reached 
by stairs continued over the main stairs. 

Construction. — This house is intended to be built 
of brick or stone; .if of the former material, hollow 
walls are to be preferred; if of the latter, furring-off 
with wood is the most suitable expedient to prevent 
dampness. The design would look very well executed 
in undressed stone, not laid with the precision of range- 
work, yet with considerable regard to regularity and 
evenness of surface. The roof, in any event, should 
be slate; the verandas and cornices wood, the former 
being covered with tin. The stiles of the paneled 
verge-board on the principal gables are dressed from 
2-inch plank, moulded and doubled, and each span- 
drel pierced with a trefoil. The bay-windows are 
both built of the materials employed in the main walls, 
whether brick or stone. 

The chimney tops are of terra-cotta or stone, but 
the former being both inexpensive and durable, will 
be preferred by a majority of proprietors. 

Estimate. — Erected in a substantial manner, the 
internal finish being in consonance with the external 
style of the building, the cost of this house will be 
between $7000 and $8000. 



Ground Flans of Design XXI. 




Fio. 83.— Principal Floor 




Fig. Mw-BioojrD Floob. (1T8*) 



-Warming and § flrtitata. 

It is only within the last century that the attention of scientific 
men has been turned to the subject of producing and maintaining 
a proper degree of warmth in human dwellings, on an economical 
and effective plan. Dr. Franklin and Count Rumford were the 
first active reformers, and did much beyond their own direct in- 
ventions for the improvement of the system then in vogue, to 
awaken inquiry and stimulate research. Latterly, Dr. Arnott, of 
London, physician extraordinary to Queen Victoria, stands pre- 
eminent as an active and efficient reformer of abuses in both warm- 
ing and ventilation, and so great has been his success that he is 
entitled to high rank among the benefactors of mankind. A great 
object of his labors was to inaugurate a thoroughly healthy system 
of warming, while the saving of fuel engaged his serious attention. 
He considered "that coal is a part of our national wealth, of which 
whatever is once used can never, like corn or any produce of 
industry, be renewed or replaced;" and that "to consume coal 
wastefully or unnecessarily, then, is not a slight improvidence, but 
a serious crime committed against future generations." But the 
most completely successful effort of his life was the perfection of 
a simple system of ventilation, promotive of the health and com- 
fort of the inhabitants of the humble cottage as well as the 
stately villa; his achievements on this point alone being suffi- 
cient to perpetuate his name to grateful posterity. He based 
his experiments on "the fact, still very imperfectly comprehended 
by the popular mind, that what is called an 'empty room,' is 
a room as truly filled with fluid air — a part of an ocean of 
known depth which covers the earth — as an open vessel at the 
bottom of the sea is filled with fluid water ; and that the life of a 
man does not more certainly depend on his inhaling a given bulk 
of that air about twenty times in every minute, than his health 
depends on breathing air which is pure. Then, as air once 



178 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



breathed acts as poison if breathed again, and as many other 
causes are defiling and vitiating the air where men live and work, 
there mast be, wherever air is confined by walls or otherwise, 
some fit means of changing it, — that is to say, of effecting ventila- 
tion." 

Before proceeding, however, to the subject of ventilation, we 
propose to offer a few practical remarks on warming, as practiced, 
and likely to be practiced, in parts of our country where wood only 
is used for fuel, and where, as a consequence, the open fire-place is 
retained in preference to grates or stoves. The various modes of 
warming by hot air, steam, hot water, etc., which obtain in the pres- 
ent stage of modern improvement, will also be briefly touched upon. 
A smoky chimney — we mean a chimney that delivers smoke 
at the lower end — has been, since chimneys were invented, one of 
the direst of domestic calamities ; and it speaks but poorly for the 
advancement of scientific knowledge among modern masons and 
bricklayers to hear them assert, both in word and action, that a 
chimney of good draught is only the result of accident. We hope 
to convince them of the contrary, — such of them at least as will 
be at the pains of reading this article, and will give attention to 
a few simple facts, — to which end we shall concentrate within 
a brief space such instructions as will enable 
the apt builder to make himself master of the 
art of chimney building. 

The common method of building the flue for 
an open fire-place is represented in section at 
fig. 85. Now it has been found that in some 
cases a chimney in this mode will, in some situa- 
tions, perform its office in a tolerable manner, 
while in others its delivery of the smoke at the 
top is almost a total failure ; and the reason 
given for this is, that the occasional downward 
action of the wind on the top of the uniform 
column of air contained in the chimney easily 
checks the impetus, and changes the direction 
given it by the ascendant properties of heated 
air, and the consequence is a deluge of smoke in the room below. 
The practical method of preventing such a calamity is very 
simple, and consists in contracting the flue at the throat and top, 
in compliance with certain conditions expressed as follows : For a 



-^1 



■ 



Fio. 86. 



WARMING AND VENTILATION. 



179 




Fxo. 86. 



chimney of ordinary dimensions, for an open fire-place, say 12 by 
12 inches, it has been found that 4 inches in 
depth from a to b, fig. 86, is the best size for 
the throat; and that, as a general rule, the sec- 
tional area of the throat of the chimney should 
not exceed that of the body of the shaft or floe 
above it. Thns, of the fine above specified, the 
area is 144 square inches, from which we find, 
by dividing 144 by 4, that the width of the 
throat should not exceed 36 inches. The throat 
can be enlarged for cleaning, by having a mova- 
ble piece of soapstone or fire-brick c at the top 
of the back. Having thns disposed of the fire- 
place and throat, we will now proceed to the 
contraction of the top of the flue. The rule, 
founded on experiment, for doing this, is to 
lessen the sectional area by abont one-third of its dimensions : 
thns, in a 12 by 12-inch flue, the area being 144 square inches, the 
contraction would be 48 inches, reducing the area of the flue to 
96 inches, or to a little less than 10 by 10 inches. This precau- 
tion is only necessary where there is a likelihood of a downward 
current, the contraction of the throat, as already described, being 
found sufficient in most situations. If, on experiment, this con- 
traction of the top is deemed necessary, it is easily performed, 
either by removing and replacing a few bricks, or fixing on the 
top of the flue an architectural terra-cotta chimney shaft, here- 
after described in this work. 

The great abundance of coal in some districts, and the facility 
with which it is transported to others, will for all time to come 
insure its extensive use as fuel in the simplest method, by burning 
in grates. For many reasons, we have occasionally recommended 
the use of the "low-down grate." The advantages claimed for it 
are, that the ashes are disposed of without any trouble, by falling 
into an ash-pit in the cellar, and that it is more convenient for 
warming the feet, etc. The latter is a doubtful advantage. 
While it is true that a person may warm his feet very quickly by 
the low-down grate, it is an error to suppose that the floor of the 
room, or the lower stratum of air within the room, can possi- 
bly be as well warmed by a fire on its own level as by one 
placed a few inches above the floor line. A little explanation may 



180 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

make this clear. All the warmth communicated to an apartment 
by grate, stove, or open fire-place is derived from the fire by 
radiation, that is, by the projection from that source of divergent 
rays of heat, as a room is lighted by radiation of the rays of 
light from a candle ; and it is worthy of observation that these 
rays are given off with equal force or strength in every direction. 
This much premised, our diagram will be understood. Suppose 
C a room, the ceiling line of which is 
represented at C D, and the floor line at 
E F, with the fire placed at the point A. 
The floor receives a fair share of the 
direct radiation from the fire, and conse- 
quently soon acquires a considerable de- 
fio. 87. " gree of warmth, promotive of the general 

comfort of the room, unless strong cur- 
rents from beneath the doors or defective skirting prevail. Now, 
if we place the floor at A B, it cannot become warm to any dis- 
tance beyond the hearth, except by secondary radiation, or rather 
reflection from the walls and ceiling, the influence of which is 
weak, as compared with that of the direct rays from the original 
source. 

The subject of consuming smoke has had considerable attention 
at the hands of reformers in this department. Dr. Franklin con- 
ceived the idea of feeding the fire from below. He undertook to 
do this by fixing the grate bars to revolve as a cylinder. Having 
placed the charge of coal on the top, the fire was immediately in- 
verted, by giving the cylinder a half revolution. This is the first 
effort of the kind on record, and since Dr. Franklin's time numer- 
ous attempts have been made to accomplish the same object, of all 
which we shall only notice the invention of Dr. Arnott, which he 
calls a " smokeless grate." In this the grate somewhat resembles 
an ordinary grate, but is placed some 18 or 20 inches from the 
hearth, and has beneath it a coal-box, which is charged at a door 
of its full width at the top, falling outward. This box has a mova- 
ble bottom, and, as combustion proceeds, this bottom is raised by 
a piston having notches, in which the ordinary poker may be used 
as a lever. The coal-box is so proportioned to the grate as not 
to need replenishing through the day ; but if, on any account, this 
should become necessary, it is easily accomplished, by merely in- 
serting a broad shovel beneath the fire, which forms a temporary 



"WARMING AND VENTILATION. 181 

bottom to the grate, and allows the opening of the coal-box door, 
and the filling is quickly done. How far this last-mentioned 
grate is a success in England, we do not know. We have never 
seen anything of the kind in this country, but think the idea may 
be of great service to those who are closely interested in the im- 
provement of warming apparatus. So great an improvement upon 
the ordinary grate would find a ready market in regions where bitu- 
minous coal abounds. In those sections where it is exclusively 
used for fuel, smoke consumers would be kindly welcomed, and 
we hope to see the day when Pittsburg, and some others of its 
Western kindred, will no longer be enveloped in the thick, pitchy 
cloud that now enshrouds them. 

Count Rumford, whose authority in such matters is almost be- 
yond question, declared that the greater part of all the heat gene- 
rated in a common fire ascended the chimney with the smoke, and 
was therefore wasted, and in corroboration of this assertion cited 
the close stoves of the continent, which are used with a great 
comparative saving of fuel. In order to prevent this waste, 
Dr. Arnott suggests that the throat of the chimney over the grate 
be contracted, and have at its narrowest part a damper, by which 
the draught of the chimney can be kept under perfect control. 
The shaft of this damper may pass through the chimney-piece, or 
be concealed in the side of the jamb. A sort of compass-plate, 
however, should be arranged, to mark with certainty the degrees 
of opening. In connection with this, it is necessary to use a mova- 
ble plate or hanging door, called a blower, by which the front 
opening of the fire-place can be enlarged or lessened. By a little 
attention, with these two agencies, the rate of combustion and the 
desirable brightness of the fire may be admirably governed and 
maintained. 

Not the least great evil of the open fire-place and grate, as or- 
dinarily constructed, is the deficiency in their heating and venti- 
lating action, which, when properly considered, are known to have 
a great influence on health. The chimney throat above described 
being so contracted as to allow the passage of but a small volume 
of air, in comparison with what rises in the ordinary chimney, 
must greatly diminish the currents or draughts of cold air, from 
whatever inlets they may come ; and as these are a fruitful cause 
of diseases, their almost total absence will be preventive of such 
liability. Nor will the heat once received by radiation on the 



182 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

walls and floor of the room be quickly changed or carried away 
by such cold currents, bat, on the contrary, will remain, and be 
more thoroughly diffused through the atmosphere of the whole 
room. To make the prevention of these draughts more perfect, a 
flue may be brought from the outside, beneath or within the floor, to 
deliver the air for the supply necessary to combustion at the hearth, 
where its temperature would be speedily changed, without discom- 
fort to the inmates of the apartment. Another plan for the accom- 
plishment of the same object, is to bring the air by a flue, as above 
mentioned, to a cell or compartment immediately behind the fire, 
and give it vent into the room at one side of the chimney breast. 

In those sections of the country in which wood is used for fuel, 
in large fire-places, large flues should be built, say from 12 to 18 
inches square. The throat in such cases should be contracted in 
the same proportion, while the back of the chimney should be built 
with a considerable inclination forward. No flue for an ordinary 
coal fire need be over 9 by 13 inches, nor the throat more than 4 
by 13 inches. For anthracite fires, whether in stove or grate, no 
flue need exceed 9 by 9 inches. 

But perhaps the most satisfactory mode of building flues yet 
practiced is to give them a circular form. This is done very 
rapidly and cheaply, by the use of a cylinder, such as any tin- 
smith can make, with a strong handle on one end, fig. 
88. After the flue has been carried up in the usual 
manner to the height of at least two feet above the 
opening of the fire-place, this cylinder may be inserted. 
After two or three courses are laid, the mason takes it 
by the handle, and, turning it around at the same time, 
draws it up to the height of two or three courses more. 
fiq. 68. It is necessary to build against it with a good supply of 
mortar, keeping the brick back from it at least half an 
inch, which leaves, when the cylinder is drawn up, a smooth, 
straight flue. Flues in this form, from 8 to 10 inches in diameter, 
will be found large enough for any ordinary coal fire. 

The subject of ventilation has of late years engaged a good deal 
of attention, but practice, so far, falls far behind theory. " Many 
volumes have been written and much rhetoric has been expended 
on the effort to show that lungs require fresh air. But, although 
this is a self-evident proposition, to any man, woman, or child who 
will give the subject a moment's consideration, it is lamentable to 




WARMING AND VENTILATION. 183 

perceive that this moment's consideration is seldom given, and that 
the common practice of ordinary house-building is in opposition 
to plain sense, as far as ventilation is concerned." Now, a man 
vitiates or renders unfit for breathing about three or fonr cnbic feet 
of the atmosphere around him per minute. Nature, however, has 
beautifully provided means for the dissipation of the poison engen- 
dered by the passage of air through the respiratory organs : the 
air thus exhaled from the lungs being heated to the temperature of 
the human body — about 98° — immediately rises and gives place 
to fresh air. The great mass or ocean of air is no more contami- 
nated by this, than would be the great Atlantic by spilling a bottle 
of ink upon its shores ; and thus the animal portion of creation at 
large suffers no bad consequences from impurities of air produced 
by breathing. But, owing to the artificial habits of mankind, of 
which dwelling in close apartments seems a basis, a necessity im- 
mediately arises for suitable provision to meet the emergencies 
occasioned by those habits. In those primitive huts or tents in 
which the fire was kindled in or near the center, and the smoke 
allowed to escape by a hole at the apex, no further demand for 
means of ventilation existed ; the vitiated air would mingle with 
the smoke or current of heated air from the fire, and so pass off 
harmless. We again quote Dr. Arnott, who invented, and thus 
describes a "ventilating valve." 

"In sitting-rooms, bed-rooms, nurseries, and inclosed places 
generally, where people assemble, the impure air of the breath, the 
burned air from lights, the odor of dishes, etc., because heated, and 
therefore specifically lighter than common air, all ascend first to- 
ward the ceiling; but, as in ordinary rooms, no opening exists 
there for escape, (for an open window-top, in a room which has 
an open fire-place, only admits the cold air,) they soon contaminate 
the whole air of the room down to the level of the chimney mouth, 
through which only can any portion ultimately pass away. In this 
way arises great, though often unsuspected, injury to the health, 
and finally to the constitution, of the inmates. The pale faces and 
scrofulous constitutions of the inhabitants of towns, and of others 
who live much within doors, are mainly the effects of this evil 
The ventilating valve is placed in an opening made from the room 
into the chimney flue, near the ceiling, by which all the noxious 
air above referred to is allowed at once, in obedience to the chim- 
ney draught, to pass away, but through which no smoke or air can 

10 



184 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



return. The valve is a metallic flap, close to the opening, balanced 
by a weight on an arm beyond the hinge. The weight may be 
screwed on its arm, to such a distance from the axis or center of 
motion that it shall exactly counterpoise the flap, but if a little 
farther off, it will just preponderate, and keep the flap, when not 
acted on by entering air, very softly in the closed position. Al- 
though the valve, therefore, be heavy and durable, a breath of air 
suffices to move it, which, if from the room, opens it, and if from 
the chimney, closes it; and when no such force interferes, it shuts. 
The valve is so adjusted, originally, as to settle always in the closed 
position. An important part of the arrangement is the wire, 
which descends like a bell-wire from the valve to a screw or peg 
fixed in the wall within reach of a person's hand, by acting on 
which the valve may be either entirely closed, or left free to open 
in any desired degree. In cold weather, or with a few persons in 
the room, the valve, when opened only a little, allows as much air 
to pass as is requisite. A flap of thirty-six square inches area is 
large enough, where there is good chimney draught, for a full-sized 
sitting-room with company. 

" It is to be observed, that if the opening or throat of the chimney 
flue over the fire be so wide that more air can easily enter than can 
escape at the chimney top above, the chimney will not take air in 
also at the ventilating valve. It is essential, therefore, that, with 
ordinary grates, the register flap be so far closed that, when the 
fire is lighted, little more than the true smoke shall be allowed to 

enter, and not also, as is usual, 
much of the pure air of the 
room escaping with it to 
waste. A second great fault 
in common fire-places, is the 
large space left between the 
fire and the chimney throat, 
in rising through which the 
true smoke contaminates much 
good air, which must then be allowed to pass away as smoky air." 
Fig. 89. A is a representation of the appearance of Arnott's 
chimney valve, while B is a section explaining the manner of its 
operation. The balance-weight could be adjusted over as well 
as beneath the valve. All attempts to conceal it, by placing it on 
the inside, have thus far been found to obstruct its proper work- 




w^r 



Fio. 89. 



WARMING AND VENTILATION. 



185 



lug, as the balance is necessarily less perfect, and the hinge more 
difficult to keep clean. 

We have now described the most simple and effective method 
of winter ventilation suitable for country houses, within our knowl- 
edge, but must not leave the subject without noticing summer 
ventilation. In the greater part of the United States, during 
several months of the year, it becomes as necessary to guard 
against excessive heat, as at other times to avoid excessive cold. 
This is mostly done by opening the windows, and variously modi- 
fying the strength and volume of the admitted current, by raising 
the lower sash or lowering the upper, by opening pivot blinds to 
various degrees, etc., — modes which seem, if judiciously practiced, 
to be susceptible of no improvement in well-arranged houses. 
Hence the necessity for attention to the subject in the distribution 
and disposal of the various apartments in domestic building. 

But sometimes in upper rooms, and particularly in garrets or 
half-stories, the heat generated by the action of the sun on the roof 
is not so easily displaced. This is especially' the case in half- 
stories of back-buildings, where the height of wall between the 
roof and the floor is insufficient to allow the insertion of windows, 
and it is consequently 
impossible to establish a 
through current in any 
direction. Now, in order 
to prevent the accumu- 
lation of heated air in 
such rooms, it becomes 
necessary to adopt a sys- 
tem operating on the 
principle explained by 
fig. 90. Instead of plas- 
tering directly on the 
rafters, the ceiling is kept 
down a few inches, as at ' 
a and b. On the apex 
of the roof is placed a 
little covered ventilator, 
with Venetian slats in 
the sides to prevent the 
ingress of rain. This may be made more or less ornamental, as 




Fra. 90. 



186 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

its prominency may demand. Small openings being made beneath 
the cornice c, for the admission of fresh air, to supply the vacuum 
occasioned by the departure of the heated air in the direction of 
the arrows, it is evident that in warm weather a constant current is 
maintained in the space between the roof and the ceiling, a medium 
which prevents the room beneath from becoming excessively heated. 
We have shown a flue d, which affords an excellent means of ven- 
tilating any closet, pantry, or store-room on the story beneath. 
The room over which this arrangement is proposed to be made 
should have a small valve in the highest part of the ceiling, and 
opposite to the gable windows at which the air is admitted. (Jar- 
rets over good chambers are ventilated in this manner, greatly to 
the comfort of those who occupy the chambers. The openings re- 
quired can be concealed in various ways, without interfering with 
their intended use. 

We may now return to the subject of warming. We have ob- 
served, in some parts of the country, that cast-iron stoves are used 
to a considerable extent, with no lining to prevent them from 
becoming red hot. This is an error productive, particularly in 
close rooms, of the worst consequences. The air that comes in 
contact with an intensely heated iron surface is deprived of its 
oxygen, and impregnated more or less with noxious effluvia given 
off by the iron. Consequently, the inmates of close rooms, heated 
in this manner, are troubled with headache, debility, and all the 
evils attendant on the breathing of a poisonous atmosphere, such 
as loss of appetite, blanched complexions, etc. Nor will a boiler 
of water on the top of the stove counteract the evil ; although 
it may diffuse moisture through the air of the room, it does not 
purify it, or render it less offensive to health. 

The principal reason for the use of close stoves is based on the 
saving of fuel, it being well understood that a greater amount of 
heat can thus be communicated to any apartment with a given 
quantity of fuel than by any other means. It is therefore an in- 
teresting question, whether or not any method can be devised 
whereby the bad effects above described can be effectually reme- 
died, at the same time that this saving of fuel is effected. No 
doubt but the object is, in a great measure, accomplished by lining 
the stove with fire-brick, which ordinarily prevents the exterior 
surface of the stove from attaining a red heat. It has been sug- 
gested, by very high authority, that a stove made with an internal 



WARMING AND VENTILATION. 187 

and external ring or thickness of iron, and the space between them 
fined with water, would be the most perfect for the diffusion of a 
healthy heat. We do not know that this has been attempted here, 
nor can we conceive why it should not be successful in the hands 
of the American inventor. 

Hot-air furnaces offer very convenient means of communica- 
ting warmth to a dwelling of almost any dimensions. This is 
effected by a furnace placed in the lower portion of the house, 
which, being duly provided with flues and registers, heats and dis- 
tributes, through all parts of the establishment, a quantity of heated 
air, in proportion to its dimensions and the capacity of the air- 
chamber in which it is placed. A fundamental point in this 
system is the supply of pure air to this air-chamber, which in most 
cases should be provided by a duct or air-passage from that side 
of the house on which the air is likely to be the most pure and 
salubrious. 

But the objection cited against stoves, when made with thin 
plates of metal without any lining to prevent them from becoming 
red hot, applies with equal force to a vast majority of hot-air furnaces 
now in use. It is therefore no wonder that often, after a trial of 
a few months, the furnace is discarded, and one of the old methods 
reported to. Air delivered from a furnace should never exceed the 
temperature indicated by 120° Fahrenheit; where the heat reaches 
from 150° to 180° at the point of delivery, the effects are un- 
doubtedly pernicious. The principle to be attended to in the con- 
struction of all hot-air furnaces is, to generate and communicate 
the greatest amount of heat with a given quantity of fuel, without 
producing any change in the breathing property of the air. In 
direct violation of this principle, however, we find, in many furnaces, 
the plate which acts as the principal generator, immediately over 
the fire, and consequently the lungs of the unfortunates who seek 
comfort from that fire are fed on scorched air. We believe that 
Mr. Chilson, of Boston, in his improved cone-furnace, has met with 
better success than any inventor who has yet asserted his claims to 
public notice. Not only is his furnace as free from the fault of 
delivering air too hot, as it seems possible for this class of furnace 
to be, but is worthy of attention on the score of economy. The 
fire-box has a lining of brick, and the heating surface is so ex- 
tended, by means of a system of conical pipes, that the air, in 
passing over it, does not become violently heated. All rooms, 



188 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

warmed by this or any other furnace, should be provided with 
ventilating registers, both at floor and ceiling, the opening and 
closing of which are placed at the command of the inmates, by 
means of handles, cord and tassels. 

Heating by hot water, although expensive, is probably more fa- 
vorable to health than any furnace system that has yet appeared. 
Mr. T. Tasker, of Philadelphia, has perfected the most complete 
apparatus that we have ever seen. It is styled " Tasker's Self- 
regulating Hot-water Furnace," from the fact that, being once 
set for the production of a given temperature, it only has to be 
supplied with fuel and water, at long intervals, to maintain that 
temperature. Our limits will not permit us to describe this ingeni- 
ous invention in full, (a complete description, with illustrative draw- 
ings, may be found in our " City and Suburban Architecture,") but 
having tested it for four years in our own residence, we here take 
occasion to express our unqualified approbation of its action as a 
mechanical contrivance and a generator of a pleasant and salu- 
brious heat. 

A good deal of inventive talent has been expended on experi- 
mental trials with steam as an agent for the diffusion of genial 
warmth through dwelling apartments; but all the inventions of 
this kind that have yet met our observation seem to be devoid 
of the elements necessary to render them favorites with the 
public. They are successfully applied to public buildings, hotels, 
hospitals, etc., but their construction and operation being at- 
tended with heavy cost and more or less danger, we know of 
none that we could recommend in unqualified terms for warming 
country houses. 



DESIGN XXII. 

Suburban $ tsiUntt 




FlQ.VL. 




Fig. 9&— Peihoipal Floor. 



Fio. 93.— Sicoto Floob. ( 100 ) 



DESIGN XXII. 
Suburban §t^iAtnct 

The individuality of this design, as a feature in 
the landscape, would be too prominent for a strictly 
rural residence, for which reason we use the term 
Suburban, impressed as we are with the feeling that 
there is a happy medium to be found betwixt the 
strictly Urban and Rural, entitled to be called Subur- 
ban. Too little attention has generally been awarded 
to these distinctions by the designer and proprietor, 
and the consequence is that we sometimes see the 
oblong, poly-storied residence located outside of city 
limits, much to the horror of its country neighbors. 

Although this design does not strictly belong to any 
of the historical divisions of style, a little examina- 
tion will show that the elements of style have not 
been overlooked or violated in its composition. Hori- 
zontal lines seem to prevail, and yet there is a per- 
vading spirit of irregularity and novelty in the details 
* which dissipates at once all ideas of the Grecian char- 

acter. But the unity and harmony manifested in 
i the composition amply compensate for the want of 

f precedent, and we hope our readers will favor it none 

the less because it cannot be directly referred to some 
, Gothic or Grecian model. 

, Accommodation. — On the principal floor, fig. 92, A is 

I the entrance veranda, and B the main hall containing 

| * the staircase. Two passages E, branch off from this 

(191) 



192 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

at right angles to each other, by which ready commu- 
nication is had with the rear entrance and domestic 
offices. A square parlor C, 20 by 20 feet, occupies 
the central front projection, and can boast of a very 
pretty octagonal bay-window. A library 10 by 12 
feet, designated by the letter D, is very conveniently 
situated near the entrance hall. I, a sitting-room, 16 
by 18 feet, adjoining the parlor, is entered from the 
passage C or the back veranda I, through a well- 
lighted vestibule. K, a veranda adjoining the sitting- 
room and parlor, is entered from both by lengthened 
windows. F is the kitchen, 10 by 20 feet, and G the 
dining-room, 14 by 18 feet; these apartments commu- 
nicate through a pantry H, 10 by 14 feet. 

On inspection of the chamber floor, fig. 93, we find 
the stair landing, designated by L, with branch pas- 
sages M, through which communication may be had 
with all the chambers. S is the best of these, but N, 
O, Q, and R, particularly the latter, are very desirable 
rooms. P may be used as a dress-room or converted 
into a bath-room. 

Construction. — The walls of this design are in- 
tended to be of rubble-stone, or, as it is sometimes 
termed, Cyclopean masonry; the coins only as repre- 
sented in the drawing, fig. 91, to be squared and 
smoothly dressed. The roof-pitch is such as to admit 
of slate or shingles for covering. 

Estimate. — Under favorable circumstances, the cost 
of this design would be about $6500. 




DESIGN XXIII. 

flattm in the $nnl gotfeic Stjle. 




Fig. (4. 





Fro. 96.— Principal Floor. 



Fio. 96.— Secoicd Floor. ( 194 ) 



DESIGN XXIII. 
$0tUp in tint fttwtl ^oiJrir J&jjk 

While we have endeavored to concentrate within 
moderate limits the necessary conveniences of a com- 
fortable mode of living for the occupants, we have 
not neglected the outward expression of taste that 
contributes so largely to the pleasure of the beholder. 
A plain building, by a few, simple, well-directed 
touches, can thus be invested with a character 
approaching the ornate. A brief analysis of the de- 
sign before us will attest the truth of the above remark. , 
Remove first the barge and eave treatment, and we 
destroy at once the polish of the expression; but take 
away the pinnacles, and we greatly weaken the 
expression itself, almost entirely depriving it of that 
piquancy that strikes us so forcibly in the present 
view. The analysis might be pushed further, to the 
consideration of the effect of removing dormers, 
changing the style of chimney tops, etc.; but we 
have said enough to show what 

"Great effects from little causes flow." 

Accommodation. — The internal arrangements of this 
dwelling are so plainly exhibited on the plan of prin- 
cipal floor, fig. 95, as scarcely to need explanation. 6 
is an open entrance porch. A, 8 by 16 feet, is the 
entrance hall, and contains a flight of stairs. B, 16 
by 18 feet, is the dining-room, lighted by a recessed 

(195) 



196 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

twin window, and having an ample china closet 
attached. The parlor C, 16 by 16 feet, has a nice 
bay-window, but would be improved by a window 
extending to the floor on the side next to the entrance 
porch, an idea not fully conveyed by the engraving. 
The kitchen D, 16 by 16 feet, is well lighted, and 
provided with sink, side entrance, and small closet. 
Adjoining the kitchen there is a wash-house, 11 by 
12 feet, and beyond this a wood-house or pump-room 
F, 7 by 12 feet, having outdoor communication inde- 
pendent of the kitchen. 

Ascending to the second floor, fig. 96, we find the 
stair landing, marked by the letter H, from which we 
have ready access to the chambers I and J, and to the 
bed-room K and bath-room L. The chambers, as will 
be seen, are all furnished with good closets. 

Four small sleeping-rooms, lighted by dormer and 
gable windows, and ventilated in the manner ex- 
plained by fig. 90, may be fitted up in the space 
afforded by the pitch of the roof. 

Construction. — A very pretty effect would be 
secured by building this cottage of wood, the weather- 
boarding being put on in the vertical manner, and the 
joints battened after one of the methods explained at 
fig. 8. The gable and eave cornice should be cut 
from 3-inch plank, in a bold manner, and also the 
ornament against the base of the pinnacles. 

Estimate. — Built of wood, in the manner above 
described, the cost of this design would not vary 
much from $3000, where timber is plenty; built of 
stone, and the walls furred inside for plastering, 
$500 should be added. 



DESIGNS XXIV, XXY. 

flsin 'Pnhl stages. 




FlO. 07. 




Fiq. 9S^— Principal Floor. 




Fio.W* 



(1W) 



DESIGNS XXIV. AND XXV. 



FT 



These designs are presented to show how much 
convenience can be obtained in the least possible 
space. Every inch of room is here pressed into ser- 
vice, and from this example it will be readily per- 
ceived how much more economical is the cube than 
the parallelogram or any irreg- 
ular form that can be applied 
to building. We feel perfectly 
safe in offering these as models 
for cheap and convenient cot- 
tages, without any effort at dis- 
play. It is just the arrange- 
ment that thousands in this 
country want. With a little 
addition to the outlay, the cor- 
nice of Design XXIV. might be bracketed, and Vene- 
tian blinds given to the windows, by which the exter- 
nal appearance would be greatly benefited. Design 
XXV. is a more picturesque elevation of the same 
plan. 

Accommodation. — The internal arrangements are 
very simple. By referring to the plan of the first 
floor, fig. 98, it will be seen that A is an entrance 
vestibule containing a simple flight of stairs. The 
apartment B, 11 by 20 feet, is intended for a living- 
room or dining-room, it being supposed that the 

(199) 



Fra. 99.— Seooitd Floor. 



200 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

cooking will be carried on in the small room E, by 
means of the ordinary cooking-stove. It will be 
observed, however, that the room D, 16 by 14 feet, 
has been arranged for a dining-room, being provided 
with corner closets, by which it is brought almost to 
the regular octagon form, and favorable to the use of 
the circular cottage dining-table. By this arrange- 
ment, a rear lobby is formed through which these 
rooms are separately entered. E, a room 10 by 12 
feet, may be used for the purpose above named or as a 
sleeping-room; in the former case, however, the com- 
municating door should be to B instead of to A, as at 
present. A snug little parlor C, 16 by 14 feet, is 
entered from the vestibule A, and also CQmmunicates 
with the dining-room. 

The plan of the second floor, fig. 99, needs no ex- 
planation. 

Construction. — This cottage is intended to be built 
of brick or rough stone, and stuccoed, and the surface 
faintly lined off in imitation of range-work. If built 
of wood, it should be weather-boarded in the horizon- 
tal manner, with corner strips and dressings, about 
6 inches wide, to the openings. 

The roof is intended for shingles, although the 
pitch represented in the view of Design XXIV. ap- 
pears low for that material; as a caution to the 
builder, we may remark that shingles should never 
be laid on a roof the rise of which is less than indi- 
cated by an angle of 30 degrees, or about one-fifth 
of the span. 

Estimate. — Without cellar, the cost of these cot- 
tages, where stone is convenient, would be about $700 
or $800; for cellar under the whole, $50 should be 
added. 



V 



^; 



DESIGN XXVI. 

Itortfctrn (SMtajjt— teuton Stjlt 




Fio. 100. 




Fig. 101.— Principal Floor. 



(201) 



DESIGN XXVI. 

The chief merit of this cottage, architecturally 
speaking, centers in its picturesque outline and an 
expression of bold independence. It would be at home 
in the fertile valley or on the rugged mountain ; to the 
former it would give a quickening touch of life and 
animation, and it would blend harmoniously in the 
tout-ensemble of the latter. 

Accommodation. — The inclosed porch, 8 by 16 feet, 
designated by the letter A, fig. 101, and fairly under- 
stood by reference to the elevation, fig. 100, is a feat- 
ure of great value in our climate, defending as it does 
the entrance doors from the storms of winter, and 
furnishing a pleasant lounging place in summer. The 
staircase hall B is 8 by 16 feet. C, 18 by 16 feet, 
will be immediately recognized as the drawing-room; 
a triple bay adds greatly to the interest and beauty 
of this apartment. The sitting-room D is also 18 by 
16 feet, and communicates with the hall and dining- 
room, making it very convenient for the reception of 
company from either, it being customary in the coun- 
try tb entertain company in the family sitting-room, 
where formality may be dispensed with, and an atmo- 
sphere more congenial to country life and habits in- 
dulged in. The dining-room E is 18 by 13 feet. Pass- 
ing through to F, the kitchen, 12 by 14 feet, we find 
a flight of private stairs, with steps to the cellar 

(803) 



204 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

beneath, and also a good kitchen closet or lock-up, and 
beyond the kitchen an out-building G, of one story 
in height. 



Fig. 10&— Chamber Floor. 



On the second floor, fig. 102, I is a lobby or stair 
landing, from which three excellent chambers J, are 
entered. A bed-room K, over the kitchen, is reached 
by the private stairs. 

Construction. — Merely elevation enough to clear 
the floor joists from danger of sudden decay should be 
given to the principal floor of this design. The walls 
are intended to be built of rubble-stone, and pointed ; 
of course the precaution of furring-off of the plaster- 
ing is not, in such a case, to be neglected on any ac- 
count. The roof requires slate, cut in various forms, 
as will be observed by reference to fig. 100, and fully 
understood by an examination of the details shown in 
the " Hints on Construction." 

Estimate. — It is impossible to give precise estimates 
for buildings of this class without a detailed specifica- 
tion. The one before us could, under favorable cir- 
cumstances, be built for about $1500 or $2000. 



DESIGN XXVII. 

$ *U ax libtr 0M»— Italian Stjlt. 





FiO. 103. 



(206) 



DESIGN XXVII. 

& §*kt 0t §lvtx ?iK» in tfo* f tatfew Jftgte* 

"The villa architecture of modern Italy," says Mr. 
Lamb, an English architect of ability, "is character- 
ized, when on a moderate scale, by scattered, irregular 
ma&ses, great contrasts of light and shade, broken and 
plain surface, and a great variety of outline against the 
sky. The blank wall on which the eye sometimes 
reposes; the towering campanile, boldly contrasted 
with the horizontal line of roof, only broken by a few 
straggling chimney tops; the row of equal-sized, 
closely-placed windows, contrasting with the plain 
space and single window of the projecting balcony; 
the prominent portico, the continued arcade, the ter- 
races, and the variously formed and disposed out-build- 
ings, all combine to form that picturesque whole which 
distinguishes the modern Italian villa from every 
other." 

In Italy the roofs are covered with tiles of semi- 
cylindrical form, which give that feature of the build- 
ing a distinct and strongly-marked expression. As 
tiles of this sort are not used in this country, a some- 
what similar appearance may be produced, when tin 
is the material employed for covering, by laying strips 
or rolls of wood on the roof sheathing at intervals of 
a few inches, in a vertical direction, and setting the 
tin closely over them. 

(207) 



208 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

The design before us, fig. 103, is an illustration of 
what Mr. Downing calls irregular symmetry; and one 
cannot help being struck with the boldness of repose 
evident in the balance of parts thus attempted, re- 
gardless of the regular form of counterpoise exhibited 
by a center and equal wings. There is an ease and 
gracefulness of expression, combined with rural fitness, 
that cannot be attained in a more regular form of 
building. An advantage of the Italian style over the 
Grecian mode is, that additions can be readily made 
at any time, and often with great improvement on 
the original structure. It may be readily imagined 
that the small tower and all beyond it in the view 
have been an addition to the front or high portion of 
the building, and we think our readers will agree with 
us in pronouncing it far from discordant or unpleas- 
ing, being only a further development of the beauty 
already attained; as in music, the original melody 
can be rendered more attractive by a great number of 
harmonious variations. This is a very strong point 
of superiority in the Italian over the Grecian style, 
considered with reference to American building. 
Hundreds of persons of moderate fortune desire to 
improve their residences at a future period, and by 
adopting a design in this style, a little foresight leaves 
everything in a favorable state for additions, with, 
at the same time, an appearance of present complete- 
ness. 

Accommodation. — We will now proceed to examine 
some of the interior arrangements, as illustrated by 
fig. 104, principal floor. A is a front piazza, through 
which the entrance to the vestibule B and main hall 
G is effected. On the left of the hall is the dining- 



A LAKE OR BITER VILLA IK THE ITALIAN STYLE. 209 



room C, 20 by 27 feet, having a recessed window, and 
the very convenient appendage— a china closet. The 
drawing-room D is 27 by 20 feet, and can boast of a 
very pleasant circular bay-widow. E is a sitting- 





F». 106.— fliooiro Flooe. 



room, 15 by 20 feet, very finely situated for viewing 
the country around, having twin windows in two 
sides; those opening to the veranda L should extend 
to the floor. , The library P is 18 by 18 feet, and also 
has an adjoining veranda L, accessible by the length- 
ened window. H is a butler's pantry. The kitchen 
J, 24 by 16 feet, is disconnected with the main dwel- 
ling apartments by a passage from the side tower 
through to the main hall. A passage at right angles 
with this is the butler's thoroughfare, through which 
all communication from the kitchen to the dining- 
room is carried on. Beyond the kitchen is an out- 
building with paved floor, the uses of which will read- 
ily suggest themselves. 
On the second floor, fig. 105, there are four fine 

11 



210 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

chambers 0. M is the hall, P and Q bed-rooms, and 
B a water-closet. 

Construction. — This design is intended to be built 
of solid materials, brick or stone being equally suit- 
able. It would be a very good idea to make all the 
window-heads, including the semicircular ones, of 
stone, even in the event of the walls being brick. 
The verandas, cornices, and upper section of large 
tower may be of wood, colored to harmonize with the 
walls. For the satisfactory execution of this design, 
the architect should be applied to for working draw- 
ings and specifications; not one builder in a hundred 
is competent to carry through an undertaking of such 
extent and complication without the direction of the 
architect. 

Estimate. — The cost of this villa on the Delaware, 
if built of brick, with dressings of Trenton sandstone, 
would be about $12,000. 



DESIGN XXVIII. 

$tt\\ttu |arm fanst. 




Fio. 103. 





Fio. 107.— PsnravAL Flook. 



Via. 108.- Sioo9x> Floo*. (212) 



DESIGN XXVIII. 

• 

The principal merit of this design rests in its bold 
expression of purpose. With very little pretension 
to architectural style, its exterior is still harmonious 
and tasteful, and cannot therefore be said to be wnr 
architectural. It has a rustic sort of beauty that 
properly belongs to the residence of the farmer — not a 
beauty derived from neat and careful finish, but from 
large surfaces and strong projections, and which is 
more generally pleasing to the eye not cultivated to 
nice distinctions, than a greater amount of elaboration. 
And perhaps the reason of this is, that it requires no 
study to render it intelligible; it speaks, like nature, 
a language for all, and all understand it and are 
satisfied. 

This house is of course intended for the farmer 
who has successfully maintained the struggle for a 
competence through which it is the lot of many to 
pass, and has reached a condition of life familiarly 
spoken of as "easy circumstances." Still the business 
of the farm must be carried on, and no one can attend 
to it better than himself. While he is, in one sense, 
more at leisure than formerly, his mind and eyes are 
not less active, and several years must elapse before 
the son can be entrusted with the post that the father 
has held so long with success. What is more reason- 

(213) 



214 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

able than that he should enjoy, during his declining 
years, the fruits of his early labors, and leave a herit- 
age to his successor that may be a becoming homestead 
for future generations! 

Few such are to be found in our farming districts : 
too little care in building furnishes no warrant against 
premature dilapidation, and the consequence is, that 
the lapse of a few years witnesses the crumbling of 
walls, decaying of timbers, and a close approximation 
to utter worthlessness. Against such disasters as 
these, the builder cannot too sedulously guard. The 
intelligence of the farmer ought to go hand-in-hand 
with that of the builder, to prevent the flight of a few 
years from so fearfully affecting their joint labors. 
Deficient foundations are often the cause of unsightly 
and sometimes fatal breaches in the walls. In some 
instances, perhaps, all skill and foresight may be ex- 
pended on these in vain; but we are inclined to think 
such instances very rare indeed. In Northern coun- 
tries, foundation walls are frequently affected by 
severe cold; the frost getting beneath walls invariably 
produces bad results. The remedy for this is to sink 
the trenches deeper; as a general rule, the depth 
should not be less than three feet below the surface of 
the ground. It will be observed, however, that the 
depth to which the ground freezes varies greatly in 
different locations, and a certain knowledge of the 
peculiarity in this respect of a given site should 
always have due weight with those concerned in 
building. It being most advisable to keep on the safe 
side in any enterprise, we should favor no exception 
from the rule in this. Again, for want of a little 
care in projecting and cementing the footing courses, 



A LARGE NORTHERN FARM-HOUSE. 215 

the walls frequently suffer from the burrowing of 
vermin. The remedy for this is to project a footing 
course on each side of the wall, to the width of four 
or six inches, and fill all the interstices with liquid 
mortar; animals attempting to burrow beneath a wall 
enter close alongside of the base, but they meet an 
impenetrable barrier in the projection above described. 
Such projections as these are very necessary in yield- 
ing ground, forming as they do a wider base for the 
support of the superincumbent wall, and distributing 
the weight over a greater amount of bearing surface. 
Sometimes, in building country houses, it happens 
that the proprietor of the land has timber of his own 
available for carpentry, that is, for joists, rafters, 
studding, etc.; indeed, in well-timbered regions, such 
as are found in parts of nearly all the States, a 
man may build a very fine house without the impor- 
tation of any portion of the wood, either for the 
framing or joinery. In connection with this fact, it 
is proper to say that too much attention cannot be 
given to seasoning all wood intended to enter into the 
construction either of skeleton or finish of dwelling- 
houses. We have sometimes seen trees cut down, 
sawed up, and the joists and scantling made from 
them performing their office within the lapse of a sin- 
gle week. This is a very great error, and those who 
commit it are only to be excused on the ground of 
urgent necessity. All timber should have a full year 
to season in, after leaving the saw-mill; and in order 
to insure the most thorough seasoning, all the advant- 
ages of a free circulation of air should be given it, 
by inserting cross-slats or "sticks" between the dif- 
ferent layers of scantling or plank, after the well- 



216 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

known method practiced by country cabinet-makers. 
All these slats should lie perpendicularly over each 
other, and should not be less than six feet apart in 
the length of the board; the foundation having been 
carefully leveled, the straightness of the plank is one 
of the desirable results of this kind of management. 
Another point is to prevent the cracking or " split- 
ting" of the plank at the ends, for which there is no 
more simple or effective remedy than placing the 
slats close to the ends while the piling is going on. 

Sometimes kiln-drying is resorted to, but this is 
attended with several objections; the wood thus dried 
is much harder to work, and does not afterward 
resist so well the effects of atmospheric changes as 
that which has undergone the course of weather- 
seasoning already prescribed. But we must now turn 
our attention to the design before us and describe its 
various properties. 

Apartments. — Beginning our examination at the 
principal floor, fig. 107, we find a vestibule A opening 
into a hall B, 9 feet wide, which contains the stairs, 
and affords direct communication with the three prin- 
cipal rooms, C, D, E, with the rear veranda I, and 
through the lobby H to the back building. The 
apartment C, 18 by 20 feet, is assumed, from its size 
and evident relations to the others, to be the best in 
the house, and therefore takes the title of parlor or 
drawing-room, according to the fancy of the proprie- 
tress, than whom none has a better right to decide in 
such matters; so far as the dictum of the architect 
may be listened to, it is worthy of either name, the pro- 
priety of one or the other being determined rather by 



A LARGE NORTHERN FARM-HOUSE. 217 

the habits of the family than by any peculiar property 
of the room. Ihrlcr has the most domestic sound, 
and probably ought to be preferred in all houses below 
the grade of a fashionable villa. 

On the right of the hall we have D, 18 by 18 feet* 
which may be considered as a sort of better sitting* 
room, in which a moderate company may be entertained 
without opening the parlor. E, also 18 by 18 feet, is 
intended for the family sitting-room, and may be used 
for a dining-room when there is company present. 
P, 18 by 18 feet, is the living-room or family dining- 
room; and 6, 18 by 16 feet, is the kitchen. An out- 
building should be here attached, but the size of the 
plate would not admit its being shown. From the 
living-room a flight of private stairs communicates 
with a lobby on a level with the half-pace of the main 
stairs, and the second floor of the back building. 

Fig. 108 shows the divisions of the chamber floor. 
K is the hall; L, chambers, all having good closets; 
M, a dressing-room; and N, a bed-room. The bath- 
room adjacent is to be supplied with water from a 
tank in the loft. By means of a circulating boiler 
attached to the kitchen range a supply of warm 
water can be constantly had for bathing purposes, and 
is equally desirable in carrying on the culinary operar 
tions. 

Construction. — This house is intended to be rough- 
cast on a rough walling of brick or stone. The great 
projection of the roof is particularly favorable to this 
treatment of the exterior. Outside blinds are a very 
valuable item in the finish of this house; but these 
are seldom shown in drawings on a small scale, as 
they detract from the appearance of the picture, 



218 HOMESTEAD ABCHTFECTURE. 

while they are well known to have a contrary effect 
in execution. The roof of this dwelling may be slate 
or shingles, as the pitch suits either, and the diamond 
or hexagon form might be introduced with happy 
effect. 

Estimate. — So much depends on the mode of 
carrying on a building, and the local cost of the 
materials required, that it is impossible to put down a 
fixed estimate. The cost of this design in our own 
neighborhood would not vary much from $4000. 



DESIGN XXIX. 

Conntrjj ftonse— $0t|jic Stjle. 




rio. 100. 




11 

+ + 



Fio. 110.— Pbdtcepjll Fwo*. 




Fio.111.— Siooxs Flook. (220) 



DESIGN XXIX. 
Cfltttttrg gfltt**— $*ifti* £ty\t. 

This rather unpretending yet very animated design 
conveys very emphatically the idea of home, without 
regard to climate or location; and on examination, 
the internal arrangements will be found equally suit- 
able for a Northern or a Southern residence. Its 
aspect is suggestive of ease and independence in the 
life of the proprietor, who, by this token, may have 
abandoned the pursuit of business and betaken him- 
self to the enjoyment of social and domestic pleasure. 

It certainly manifests a great amount of domestic 
feeling, and if it be allowed that there should be an 
evident sympathy between ourselves and the homes 
we dwell in, we cannot be far wrong in assigning the 
proprietorship of this dwelling to the retired merchant 
or literary connoisseur. 

Apartments. — Fig. 110 represents the principal 
floor, H being a carriage-drive and A a continuous 
veranda around three sides of the house. Entering 
through a hall 9 feet in width, we find an excellent 
drawing-room B, 16 by 30 feet, the chief merits of 
which consist in its amplitude and symmetrical form. 
On the right of the hall C, 15 by 16 feet, is an excel- 
lent sitting or reception room, and D, of the same 
dimensions, may be used either for a chamber or 
library; if for a library or family sitting-room, an- 

(221) 



222 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

other window should be given. The dining-room, 14 by 
18 feet, (marked E,) is very well situated, being entered 
directly from the main hall, and having communica- 
tion through a small lobby with the side veranda and 
with the kitchen F on the rear. This kitchen is 14 
by 15 feet, and has connected with it an out kitchen 
of 12 by 12 feet. Six large chambers and a smaller 
one, all marked K, furnish a rare amount of sleeping 
room, on the second floor, fig. 111. 

Construction. — Although this house, with a great 
deal of propriety, may be constructed of wood, it is 
preferable to make use of more permanent materials. 
Rubble-stone covered with rough-cast would be a very 
economical and satisfactory method of building the 
walls. A shingle or slate covering would suit the 
pitch better than any other. 

Estimate. — We put the cost of this design, under 
ordinary circumstances, at $4000. 



DESIGN XXX. 

Irngulsr tonirg fonse. 




Fig. 112. 




"W 

Fiq. 113.— Puxcipal Floor. 



(22*) 



DESIGN XXX. 

Irregular in plan and general outline, yet neat 
and chaste in detail, the design before us is a fair type 
of the beauty that may be attained without a tendency 
to extravagance in the exterior adornment of an edi- 
fice springing from an irregular basis. 

Accommodation. — By a reference to fig. 113, the 
plan of first floor, the internal arrangements will be 
perceived almost at a glance. A through hall B, is 
entered from the piazza A. This hall contains the 
stairs, and affords access, by a side passage, to the 
kitchen E. The parlor C is 15 by 30 feet, and has a 
rectangular bay window, communicating by a length-, 
ened window with the veranda I. The dining-room 
D has also a bay window, seen in the perspective 
view, which, by the way, is reversed from the plan. 
F is the butler's pantry, G a wood-shed, and H a 
kitchen closet. 

The plan of the second floor exhibits the arrange- 
ment of the chambers. K is the landing of the stairs 
in the front building, from which the three chambers 
L are entered, and from which also the stairs are con- 
tinued to the roof-story, in which three very comfort- 
able bed-rooms may be fitted up. 

A passage from the half-landing of the stairs leads 

(225) 



226 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



to the bath-room M and the adjoining bed-room N, 
over the kitchen.' 




YlQ. 114.— Sboond Floob. 



This house could be very efficiently warmed by a 
single furnace, the proximity of the flues being quite 
favorable to that mode : the hall, parlor, and dining- 
room, and the three chambers over, could all be kept 
comfortably warm, as the central position of the 
flues involves but little loss of heat. 

Construction. — This design admits with equal 
facility the use of wood or more solid materials. 
The thickness of walls, as drawn, indicates the use of 
stone, which, in many districts, is the cheapest mate- 
rial. The pitch of the roof seems to demand shingle 
or slate; the drawing represents them of varied form. 

Estimate. — Built of stone and rough-cast in a neat, 
careful manner, and all the workmanship substantial 
and well finished, the cost of this house, in Pennsyl- 
vania or Ohio, will not vary much from $3500. 



DE8IGN XXXI. 




Fro. 116. 




Fxa. 116^-PtiwciPAt Floo*. 



(228) 



DESIGN XXXI. 

We have sought in this instance to combine some* 
of the prominent characteristics of French with the 
rustic irregularity of English Domestic Architecture, 
and congratulate ourselves that we have been tolera- 
bly successful. 

The effects manifested in fig. 115 are worthy of 
the attention of every designer who aims to produce 
anything beyond commonplace results. A study of 
this example will convince him that bold projections 
alone are not really productive of all that is desira- 
ble in architectural compositions. Light and shade 
are the elements of pleasing effect; but these ele- 
ments require peculiar treatment, as the euphonious 
sounds given forth by a musical instrument require 
the skill of a performer to weave them into melody. 

Accommodation. — Fig. 116 is the plan of the prin- 
cipal floor. The entrance to the main hall B is 
effected through the veranda E and the tower A. C 
is a parlor, 17 by 22 feet, and D a family-room, 16 by 
22 feet, the former having an octagonal and the latter 
a right-angled bay-window. E is a very good draw- 
ing-room, and F a dining-room, each being 17 by 24 feet* 
G is a library, 16 by 17 feet; H, a lobby to private 
bath-room; I, verandas. The domestic offices, such 
as kitchen, wash-house, etc., are supposed to be dis- 
connected from the main building, except by an open 

(229) 



230 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



covered way. Altogether, this would make a very 
good Southern residence. 




Fra. 117^-8iooiid Fumb. 



On the second floor, fig. 117, L denotes the main 
hall; M, the best chambers; N is a dressing-room; 0, 
a large sleeping-room; P, a wardrobe. It will be 
seen that the two latter apartments are entered by 
side flights from the half-landing of the stairs. A 
flight of stairs leads from the main hall to the roof- 
story, which contains several good bed-rooms. 

Construction. — As will be perceived at a glance, 
this building is intended to be erected of stone, and 
roofed with slate. The verandas may be wood or 
iron; the latter material is preferable, if the limits of 
the intended cost will permit its use. 

Estimate. — The cost of this design may be vari- 
ously estimated at from $18,000 to $20,000, according 
to the section of country in which it may be erected. 



DESIGN XXXII. 

e taittrs fonst— Italian Stgle. 




Fro 118 



(J12) 



DESIGN XXXIL 

The frequent recurrence in this work of designs in 
the Italian style will no doubt lead our readers to 
conclude that we are exceedingly partial to that mode 
of building. Such a conclusion would be eminently 
just. And we think the designs presented will do 
much to imbue the minds of our readers with the 
same prejudices in its favor. 

The scene before us, fig. 118, is a very quiet, unos- 
tentatious one; the architecture and its surroundings 
exhibit some spirit, but the tone of both is subdued 
to an unusual degree. There are many minds who 
prefer this expression of forced serenity to rule over 
all demonstrations of animation. The life must be 
visible and striving to burst forth, but the subduing 
influence more prominent and powerful; as in a moral 
subject we sometimes see strongly delineated the evi- 
dences of passion, but over all this discover the pre- 
vailing element in character called self-government, 
the influence of which bears heavily on every action 
and assumes a degree of supremacy under almost 
every circumstance. 

Accommodation. — The divisions of the principal 
floor,, fig. 119, are easily understood by inspection. 
K is a drive for carriages, from which the main hall 
A is entered. This hall is 10 feet wide, and contains 

(283) 



234 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



a fine flight of stairs. An improvement on the front 
entrance, omitted by oversight in the engraving, 
would be what the old carpenters call an entry^piece, 
with light doors, to form a vestibule: pilasters bear- 




fre. 119.— Pmtoipai, Vloob. 



Fig. 120.— 8*»in> Vlooe. 



ing an archway, irrespective of the filling of doors 
and side lights, thrown across a hall or passage, always 
received the above name. One of these might be 
placed to good advantage near the foot of the stairs, 
the archway in this case being elliptical. The draw- 
ing-room B, of irregular plan, is equal in area to a 
room of 17 by 22 feet. Adjoining it is a semicircular 
conservatory D, (omitted in the view, fig. 118,) entered 
by either of the windows, which are extended to the 
floor. The library C is 14 by 18 feet, and is provided 
with angular book closets, which may be fitted up 
with walnut dressings and glazed doors, so that, except 
a center-table and the necessary chairs and carpet, 
but little furniture will be required. The sitting- 



LARGE COUNTRY HOUSE — ITALIAN STYLE. 235 

room E is 12 by 22 feet, and communicates through 
lengthened windows with the veranda J. The dining- 
room F is 18 by 21 feet, and has a butler's pantry G 
communicating with the kitchen by a small slide door. 
Passing from the hall or dining-room to the kitchen 
H, we find on the left a flight of private stairs lead- 
ing to the lobby P and bath-room N, on second floor. 
The kitchen is 16 by 17 feet, and has a rear door. A 
manifest improvement here would be the addition of 
an out-kitchen or wash-house: no dwelling can be 
called complete except such domestic operations as 
cannot be postponed for fair weather can ail be car- 
ried on under shelter. A veranda I forms a very 
useful and agreeable shelter to the rear entrance of 
main hall. 

On the second floor, fig. 120, L is the main hall. 
Five apartments, respectively marked M, afford an 
unusual amount of chamber accommodation. All 
these rooms are provided with closets; these may be 
omitted, should the proprietor prefer movable ward- 
robes. A very appropriate style of wardrobe for these 
rooms is shown on plate 6, of Furniture Designs. 
is a bed-room, which any housekeeper will readily 
find use for. 

Construction. — This house should be built of brick. 
If fine material is used for facings, and the work laid 
secret-bond throughout, painting may be resorted to 
with very good results. The mortar-joints in this 
case should not be tucked, but struck flush, so as to 
present an even surface when finished. 

The drive, cornices, verandas, and ventilator will be 
wood, and should be painted and sanded to correspond 
with the body of the building. The umbrage over 

12 



236 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

the windows is designed to be supported on wooden 
brackets, the covering itself being tin. The roof of 
the building throughout may be tin or shingle, as 
found most expedient. Stone heads and sills for the 
openings, and stone water-table should be procured for 
this design, if possible. Whatever color these may 
be— and we should prefer some one of the qualities 
already named, being careful to avoid cold, gray tints — 
harmony should be preserved by imitating it in paint- 
ing the walls with the allowance of a few shades of 
difference in the strength of tint. With the darker 
qualities of stone, the walls should be kept lighter 
than the dressings, and vice versa. 

Estimate. — Built as above described, the material 
being of good quality and the workmanship well exe- 
x cuted, the cost of this house will not vary much from 
$7000. 



®xUxifit f 0intx%. 

Under this head, we propose to say something 
about the .construction of verandas, cornices, etc. 
Properly, the first point considered in this connection 
is the quality of wood used for the purpose. It is 
requisite that the kind of wood chosen should be 
naturally durable, and as free from incidental defec- 
tions as possible, such as shakes, knot-holes, etc., and 
at the same time of such a degree of solidity as is 
consistent with economy in converting it into the 
forms and details adopted in exterior finish. 

Of all the woods with which this continent abounds, 
none is more universally used for external mouldings, 
cornices, and brackets, than the well-known white pine. 
The readiness with which it can be cut, planed, and 
moulded; its lightness, the ease with which it can be 
secured by nails, screws, and glue, together with its 
durability, make it a favorite in all sections where it 
can readily be procured by importation. It grows in 
great abundance in Canada, in portions of the North- 
ern States from Maine to Oregon, extending as far 
South as Virginia. From this it follows that its 
transportation to the most remote sections of the 
country is easily accomplished over the great nar 
tional thoroughfare, the Mississippi River and its 
tributaries, and through the interior by the numerous 

(237) 



238 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

railroads. Hence, with the exception of some of the 
inland poplar districts of Ohio and Indiana, the cy- 
press regions of Louisiana, and a portion of the Gulf 
States where yellow pine prevails, we find all over the 
United States the preference awarded to white pine 
for outside joinery. We may also remark by the 
way, that it is an excellent timber for the framing of 
roofs and floors of large span, owing to its lightness 
and rigidity; the liability to sag by its. own weight 
being small in comparison with any other timber. 

In the Carolinas and the Gulf States, the yellow 
pine of the country is used for the purposes under 
consideration, but for the best class of buildings 
white pine is often imported. The same may be said 
of Louisiana, where cypress is the ruling timber, and 
of parts of Indiana and Ohio, where yellow poplar 
grows in remarkable abundance. 

These four species of wood — white pine, yellow pine, 
cypress, and yellow poplar — are, with a very few excep- 
tions, the materials employed in all the exterior wood- 
work taking the name of joinery in the United 
States. Sometimes, for Gothic buildings, oak, walnut, 
and yellow pine may be used for the barge and eave 
finish, with very pretty effect, no paint being applied, 
but merely a stain to give the natural color of the 
wood a little more depth, and on this a coat of oil, 
and sometimes a coat or two of varnish of a nature 
calculated to resist the action of the weather. In 
such cases the edges of the window-frames and the 
sash should be of the same material, or at least should 
correspond in color. 

For floors exposed to the weather, any of the above 
woods, well chosen, are recommended, and we may 



EXTERIOR JOINERY. 239 

add ash to the list. In former times, great partiality 
was shown for thid wood for interior floors, particu- 
larly of halls and dining-rooms, on account of its 
purity of appearance and the ease with which it is 
cleansed; latterly, it is not much sought for any of 
these purposes; but we drop the hint for the benefit 
of the localities where it abounds, being well assured 
that, aside from the difficulty of working, it is an ex- 
cellent material. 

Exterior wood-work does not require that fineness 
of execution that is so desirable in inside joinery. 
The points to be gained are correctness of outline and 
sufficient smoothness of surface to cast off water and 
receive paint evenly. Hence, mouldings worked by 
machinery, or brackets sawed by a carefully managed 
jig-saw, are usually smooth enough, if cut from wood 
of a moderate degree of solidity, to put up as they 
come from the mill. 

In putting together the members of cornices, brack- 
ets, or in fact any outside wood-work, white-lead 
ought to be freely used in the joints; neat joints filled 
with white-lead are proof against water; those in 
which this precaution is not taken are much more 
liable to take water, by which decay is induced and 
much damage otherwise frequently done. 

We now offer a few drawings for brackets, with 
hints as to the nature of the de- 
sign to which they apply. Fig. 
121 is made of three thicknesses 
of plank, the middle section being 
much the thickest and receding 
from the profile of the outside w *».m. 
sections, which greatly enlivens the character of the 




240 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



bracket. This bracket would apply well to main 

cornice of Design II. 

Fig 122 is sawed from a single thickness 
of plank, say three inches through, and 
would be a very acceptable bracket for 
almost any house of moderate pretensions 
in the bracketed style, such for instance as 
Design VI. 
Fig. 123 is also cut from a single plank ; its size 

and contour is significant of a heavy overhanging 

cornice; it would come in play in the tower of 

Design X. 




Fro. 122, 





Fro. 123. 



Fig. 124. 



Fig. 124 is designed for the base of a tower pin- 
nacle, such for instance as Design 
II. or XIX.; by inverting it we 
have a beautiful cornice bracket. 
Fig. 125 is a bold bracket for a 
cornice of great projection. These 
are both represented as cut from a 
single thickness of plank, but in 
practice it will be often found ex- 
pedient to cut them from two or more thicknesses. 

Fig. 126 is an ornamental bracket, consisting of a 
roof and wall piece, having the angle filled with sawed 
work: this, it will be observed, is intended for an 
eave cornice where the plancier has the same incli- 




PiO. 125. 



EXTERIOR JOINERY. 



241 



nation as the roof. An instance of this may be 
pointed out in Design XIII. 





Fro. 127. 



fro. 126. 



Fig. 127 is a bracket only to be 
copied where lightness and ele- 
gance are sought, rather than an 
exhibition of strength or massiveness. 

Fig. 128, though graceful in contour, is never- 
theless much more significant of strength than the 
preceding, and against a heavy mass of building with 
proportionate cornice would be entirely preferable. 





FiO.129. 



Vis. 138. 



Fig. 129 exhibits a very pretty 
mode of rafter treatment in small, 
light buildings; sometimes it may be appropriately 
applied to large dwellings. We have shown the same 
idea, with less projection and embellishment, at fig. 
41. The figure before us is very suitable for the roof 
of a summer-house. 

Fig. 130 is a framed bracket, indicative of great 
strength by its main contour, yet rendered rather 



242 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



elegant by the amount of decorative effort expended 
upon it; it is decidedly of German 
origin. Such a bracket has a very 
extensive range of application, but 
probably harmonizes best with a 
composition of the nature of De- 
sign VIII., where the mansard roof 
is introduced. 



Fw.180. 



Fig. 131 has but very little expression of strength, 
yet as a decorative feature in light cornices of consid- 
erable projection, may be frequently employed with a 
happy effect. The same remarks apply to fig. 132; 
both are designed to be cut from a single thickness of 
plank, in two parts, as shown by fig. 131. 




Fig. 131. 



Fra. 132. 



Fia.183. 



Fig. 133 is an ornamental spandrel or angle filling, 
which never fails to produce an agreeable appearance 
when introduced in work of corresponding lightness : 
a very light veranda, summer-house, or conservatory 
is greatly enhanced in beauty by having this or a 
similar ornament in the angle, formed by the posts 
and frieze. 

Fig. 134 belongs to that bold class of brackets which 
gives so much life and picturesqueness, when well ap- 



EXTERIOR JOINERY. 



243 



plied, to high, strong-looking country buildings. On 
a small scale it makes a very pretty veranda bracket; 
in either case, it is cut from a single plank. 





Fro. 134. 



Fro. 136. 



Fig. 135 is a plain bracket, cut from a single plank, 
not particularly demonstrative of strength ; it would 
make a very pretty angle filling at the head of a ve- 
randa post. Fig. 136 is a great deal more ornate, being 
made of three thicknesses of plank, with a consider- 
able amount of regard to elaboration. 






Pig. 136. 



Fig. 137. 



Via. 188. 



Figs. 137 and 138 are both of an ornamental char- 
acter, and are only applicable in light architecture; 
either would make a very pretty spandrel bracket for 
a veranda: they are both made of a single plank. 




244 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

Fig. 139 is a small bracket to be applied where an 
appearance of considerable strength is 
required; a little examination suggests 
that this bracket should have a little 
more thickness in proportion to its 
breadth. 

Outside Venetian blinds and shutters are now made 
by machinery, and notwithstanding we frequently 
hear sweeping condemnations of this machine-joinery, 
we believe it possible to produce in this manner an 
excellent quality of work. Unfortunately, the great 
amount of competition in this business has injured 
the quality of the joinery by reducing the standard 
of prices so low as to render the manufacture of good 
work not even moderately profitable, and the natural 
consequence is, the country is flooded with the spu- 
rious article. But we think a reaction must before 
long take place. When this bad reputation of ma- 
chine-work becomes thoroughly diffused, few will buy 
it, and , the counterfeit manufacturer will be obliged 
to abandon the business; all will suffer for a time by 
the operation, but it will be found in the end that 
the most prosperous manufacturers are those who 
never violated the laws of honest workmanship. 

Pivot-blinds, i.e. blinds in which the slats in each 
section revolve simultaneously under the control of a 
single vertical rod attached loosely to each slat, are 
now deservedly much in vogue. They are light and 
airy looking, and although not strictly an archi- 
tectural appendage, are almost indispensable, and in 
Southern houses entirely so. By adjusting the slats, 
the direct rays of the sun can be excluded, and air and 
light admitted, and, when necessary, they can be con- 



EXTERIOR JOINERY. 245 

verted into a clpse shutter for defense by securing the 
vertical rod at one end. But for more perfect secu- 
rity against light-footed agents, it is deemed most 
proper, in parts of the Northern States, to use the 
close shutter on first-story windows, and these well 
secured by ten-inch iron bolts : these, however, look 
rather less pleasing than the blinds we have just de- 
scribed, and will, we think, ultimately yield to the 
Venetian blind. 

In circular-headed windows, a very unsightly effect 
is produced by the opening of the blinds to the crown 
of the arch ; and the question arises, how is this to be 
remedied? Imperfectly, by only opening the blind to 
the springing line, and perfectly, by sliding the blinds 
into the wall so as to be entirely invisible. The sill 
can be extended on each side of the window, and the 
rail for the sheaves laid upon it, so as to give perma- 
nency to the whole system. The strongest argument 
against this is, that it occasions an unusual thickness 
of wall; but, on the other hand, it may be met with 
the fact that the hollow thus formed adjacent to the 
window may be common to the whole wall, by which 
the wall is greatly strengthened, if due attention 
is paid to the bond, and the cost not materially in- 
creased. This course was pursued in the erection of 
Design I. of this work, and might with equal propriety 
be adopted in any dwelling of considerable magni- 
tude, where the arched window-head is employed. 

Veranda-posts of small dimensions, say not exceed- 
ing 7 inches square, may be solid; when larger than 
this, they may be made hollow, of one and a half or 
two-inch plank. Great care, however, is requisite to 
prevent the opening of joints from exposure to the 



246 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

weather; a liberal use of screws shouh} be resorted to, 
which, with white-lead or glue in the joints will pre- 
vent very disastrous results. Where a fine fluted or 
reeded column is to be made, the staves are glued up 
as in inside joinery, but with additional care as to the 
quality of the joints and the general solidity of the 
column. 

Having briefly adverted to the most interesting 
point of exterior wood-work, we take leave of the 
subject, with the feeling that the whole compass of 
the present work would be insufficient to do it full 
justice. Inside joinery will be treated of in connec- 
tion with Interior Finish in general. 



DESIGN XXXIIL 

gl fittttrtsqat Villi. 




Fro. 140. 





Fig. 141.— Principal Floor. 



Fig. 142.— Second Floor. ( 248 ) 



DESIGN XXXIII. 

g, § ijctttmijtu Will*. 

This villa has been erected in the neighborhood of 
Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, and also at Ann Arbor, 
Michigan, with entire satisfaction to the gentlemanly 
proprietors. It contains all the apartments necessary 
to a refined and even luxurious mode of life, as well 
as the appendages requisite for the independent work- 
ing of the household economy, which are really indis- 
pensable in the country. 

Apartments. — The hall A, fig. 141, is entered from 
the veranda F, and contains the main stairs. It is 
worthy of remark, that all the principal apartments, 
the kitchen included, are reached from this hall 
without the necessity of making a thoroughfare of 
any room, or passing out of doors. The drawing- 
room B is 18 by 31 feet, and is a fine example of a 
symmetrical apartment susceptible of a high style of 
finish. The veranda extending around three sides of 
it is accessible by lengthened windows, and affords a 
fine promenade around to the conservatory E, and to 
the tower situated at the rear of the main hall. C is 
a sitting-room, 18 by 25 feet, from which the conser- 
vatory is directly entered by a lengthened window. 
The dining-room D is 18 by 25 feet; the kitchen E 
is 22 by 24 feet, furnished with range, sink, etc. The 
one-story building comprises G, a bake-roora, 15 by 24 

(249) 



250 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

feet, containing an oven; H, the wash-room, 16 by 
20 feet; I, a wood-house, 15 by 16 feet; and K, the 
ice-vault. A close inspection of this plan will enable 
the reader to perceive that a number of minor append- 
ages not described are included in this arrangement. 

The divisions of the second floor are very plainly 
illustrated by fig. 142. The stair hall is denoted by 
L, and the four principal chambers by M; N is a 
dressing-room for the two front chambers, and a 
large closet to the adjoining chambers. A bed-room 
is denoted by P, and a bath-room and closet by Q and 
R. The attic bed-rooms are attained by a flight of 
stairs in the tower beginning on this floor. 

Construction. — The materials employed in the 
erection of this villa should all be of first quality, 
and the workmanship done in the most careful, neat, 
and substantial manner. The nature of the design is 
such that its stability, when erected, depends on the 
firm adhesion and rigid qualities of the parts rather 
than on the gravitation of matter. It was originally 
prepared with a view to being erected of brick and 
roofed with slate, but might very properly be built of 
wood and covered with shingles. 

Estimate. — The cost of this design in the vicinity 
of Philadelphia, if erected with reference to the above 
hints, will not vary much from $8000. 



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DESIGN XXXIV. 




Fro. 143. 




Fio. 14 L— Principal Floor. 



Via . 145.— Second Floor. ( 251 ) 



DESIGN XXXIV. 
&u$U'&ttutk f ill*. 

[No. 2.] 

There is an amount of boldness and strength ex- 
hibited in this design that is truly gratifying to the 
admirers of these qualities in architecture. The be- 
holder instantly perceives in this the residence of a 
man of wealth, with a taste bordering on the eccen- 
tric, yet kept in some degree of regularity by archi- 
tectural conventionalities. 

Apartments. — The front entrance is through the 
veranda H, fig. 144, from which an octagonal vesti- 
bule A, 17 feet in diameter, is entered. The vestibule 
has niches in the alternate sides, which, occupied by 
vases of flowers or appropriate statuary, make a very 
agreeable feature of internal decoration. This apart- 
ment is intended for the twofold purpose of vestibule 
and reception-room, and it would therefore unite in its 
detail the richness of vestibule finish with the ampli- 
tude and comfortable aspect of a reception-room. 

The drawing-room B is 16 by 28 feet, with a semi- 
circular bay and a conservatory of concentric plan 
attached. A smaller conservatory or green-house D, 
10 by 15 feet, for rearing the more delicate sort of 
flowers in pots or vases, adjoins the parlor C, 16 by 16 
feet. A very good family sitting-room is denoted by 
E, 14 by 18 feet. F is the dining-room, 16 by 24 
feet, communicating by folding or sliding doors with 

(263) 



254 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

the drawing-rooip; it is provided with two good clos- 
ets K, and a passage to the kitchen 0. 

From the staircase hall I, a side entrance opens 
into a lobby L, which contains the private stairway 
and has a side door to the veranda P. Beyond this is 
the kitchen M, 15 by 16 feet, a well-lighted apartment 
fitted up with range, etc.; an out-kitchen N, 12 by 12, 
completes the extension of back-buildings. 

The plan of the second floor, shown by fig. 145, 
corresponds in general arrangement with that of the 
first. A is an octagonal hall, from which access is 
had to the chambers B and C, the wardrobe I, the 
bath-room H, and the front balcony. K denotes the 
landing of the main stairs, D boudoir, and E a large 
family chamber, both directly accessible from the 
landing. M, the landing of the private stairs, is on a 
level with the half-pace of main stairs, as also is the 
bath-room G, and the sleeping-room F. 

Construction. — As will be observed by fig. 143, 
this design was prepared with a view to being built of 
stone laid in the manner known as broken range-work, 
its style and spirit being very favorable to this mode 
of construction. Slate or shingles of varied patterns 
would be very appropriate for roof-covering. The 
details of this building are very peculiar, and would 
require the greatest care in the architect to elaborate 
them properly. No proprietor having any regard for 
its correct expression or permanent construction would 
entrust the preparation of the working drawings to 
an ordinary builder. 

Estimate. — The cost of this villa, exclusive of the 
architect's fee, (usually from three to five per. cent, 
on the building expenses,) will not much exceed 
$12,000. 



§ nUxifit gintih. 

Volumes might be written on this very interesting 
subject, but in the present work we can do no more 
than touch briefly on some of the leading principles 
of interior treatment, with occasional reference to the 
details of construction, which should claim the atten- 
tion of the joiner and decorator. 

It will occur to the mind of any one who gives the 
subject a moment's consideration, that where a dis- 
tinctive style has been chosen for the exterior of a 
building, no decided departure from it should be 
permitted on the interior decorations. Not that the 
external forms should be repeated throughout the 
apartments, but that the same spirit of composition 
should manifest itself plainly and undeniably, even 
to the uncultivated eye. With a Grecian exterior, 
anything but a Grecian interior, if style is attempted 
at all, is unpardonable, and the same verdict applies 
to all phases of architecture between which there is 
a radical difference, as between the Grecian and Ital- 
ian, the Italian and Gothic, etc. 

The style of an interior is characterized by the 
finish of ceiling, with form of the openings and man- 
ner of dressing them. The simplest form of ceiling, 
where style is attempted to be portrayed, is divided 
into compartments or panels, and may have a very 
plain cornice with a bed and frieze moulding, and the 

13 (255) 



256 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

usual architrave fillets on the lower edge; this, with 
square-headed openings, is the type of all Grecian 
interiors. As a higher display is aimed at, the entire 
details of the Grecian entablature are introduced, the 
panels in the ceiling are deeply sunk and moulded, 
and the openings decorated with pilasters and entabla- 
tures in accordance with the fixed proportions of the 
style. In the Italian, or its legitimate parent, the 
Roman style, the semicircular or oval-headed opening 
is introduced, the ceiling is sometimes coved and 
sometimes flat, but always embellished with more or 
less foliated moulded work, either in solid plaster or 
fresco painting; much latitude is allowed in the cor- 
nice, but, as a rule, its vertical dimensions should not 
vary much from one-eighth of the height of the room, 
having its projections sufficient to give strong lines of 
shadow. A Gothic interior, or rather an interior in 
which the spirit of Gothic style is to be maintained, 
is rendered very pleasing by giving the ceiling the 
form of a depressed arch ; this is readily and cheaply 
done by furring down from 6 to 10 inches at the sides 
of the room, (or more where the height of the room 
is ample,) from the horizontal plane of the under side 
of the joists, and gradually decreasing the depth of 
furring up to the middle of the ceiling, which thus 
becomes the crown of an arch through the whole 
length of the rdom. For a simple bed-room treated 
in this manner, a light cornice of cove profile, run in 
the angle against the walls, makes a finish of suffi- 
cient completeness; but where a higher grade of 
embellishment is required, it becomes necessary to in- 
troduce a longitudinal moulded rib at the apex of the 
ceiling, membering at the wall-cornice, and various 



INTERIOR FINISH. 



257 



transverse ribs, and, in wide rooms, other ribs parallel 
to the length of the room; by this treatment the 
ceiling is divided into regular compartments, and with 
neatly moulded ribs, having bosses at the intersec- 
tions, is greatly beautified. 

Before leaving the subject, we 
will exhibit a few tasteful designs 
for cornices, irrespective of any 
particular style. * Fig. 146 is a 
neat and very effective cornice in 
execution; its contour is referable 
to Gothic mouldings, and it would 
perhaps be best to confine its use to Gothic apart- 
ments. 




Fro. 146. 




Fio. 147. 



Fig. 147 is a very large drawing-room cornice, and 
applies well to the Italian style of interior. The 
foliation of the cove may be either solid in plaster of 
Paris, or imitated by fresco painting. 

Fig. 148, although a very good 
cornice, is not so large as the above; 
if the cove, however, is foliated by 
painting, its inferior dimensions will 
scarcely detract from its elegance, 
unless the room in which it is placed 
be disproportionately large. 




Fio. US. 



258 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 




Fie. 150. 



Fig. 149 is a very chaste cornice, yet with a 
strongly-marked character; its 
terminal mouldings are rather 
abrupt, but a touch or two 
by a ready hand in forming 
the mould will remedy the 
slight imperfection. 
Fig. 150 is a neat cornice of almost 
unlimited application. Its simplicity 
and the economy with which it can be 
run are points that recommend it to 
favor. 
Fig. 161, although very simple in section, is, when 
executed with the fullness and ro- 
tundity here represented, a very 
pretty example of plain cornice. 

The characteristic pointed-head 
of the Gothic opening is seldom 
applied to interiors, except in a very 
depressed form, on account of its 
being poorly adapted to practical use; as a general 
rule, it is much more convenient to have square- 
headed openings throughout interiors, even when the 
lancet-pointed arch is used on the exteriors; this is 
practicable in windows of moderate size, but does not 
look well in a very large window. We speak of the 
convenience of square-headed windows in view of the 
ease with which inside shutters, curtains, etc. can be 
arranged and fitted. If the pointed finish is retained 
on the inside, that portion of the inside shutter above 
the springing line of the arch must be made stationary, 
and the head of the window curtains will also follow 
the lines of the arch, terminating at the springing 




Fig. 161. 



INTERIOR FINISH. 259 

line; all this, although productive of a very agreeable 
effect, is attended with increased complication and no 
inconsiderable expenditure. These remarks apply 
with equal force to the semicircular or Roman arch. 
We should not neglect to mention that another ex- 
pedient is sometimes resorted to when the pointed or 
semicircular form of head is retained; we allude to 
sliding the inside shutters into the walls in each side 
of the window. This is often successfully done in 
very expensive houses; but there are various objec- 
tions to it, not the least of which is the liability to 
get out of order; another is, the space or chasm that 
must inevitably occur between the springing line and 
the crown of the arch when the shutter is entirely 
open, that is, pushed into the wall to its full depth. 

We have had occasion to observe the violations of 
good taste that occur through the country in the in- 
terior dressing of windows and doors. Some of our 
good friends, the joiners, think that the sole merit of 
a door or window finish consists in its width without 
regard to the dimensions of the opening to be dressed. 
This is an unfortunate error, and one which should be 
dispelled , as soon as possible. The dressing of an 
opening should seldom exceed the one-sixth of the 
width of that opening; in pointed openings it may 
be much less, and there are some circumstances under 
which it may be more. In short, while it is an ob- 
ject to avoid extreme meagerness, it is no less a 
desideratum to shun a clumsiness which comes at so 
high a rate to the proprietor. 

White pine being at once light, rigid, and easily 
worked, Beems to have been intended for many things, 
but particularly for doors. Apropos to this, however, 



260 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

we may mention that for first-class doors, mahogany 
formerly was the favorite wood, hut latterly walnut, 
and in the most expensive houses rosewood has su- 
perseded it, partly owing to a ruling passion for 
novelty, hut mostly to the scarcity of a good quality 
of mahogany. But in evidence of the real value of 
white pine it may be noticed that nearly all our 
every-day doors are made of it in regions where it 
can be procured. Although less skill is required in 
the joinery of white pine than in that of almost any 
other wood, yet the painter's art being necessary to 
render it at all presentable, it can never take position 
among the fine-grained woods above mentioned, where 
a superior style of inside finish is attempted. 

A sort of mania has arisen in some parts for wide 
door-stiles; we hear joiners boast of putting eight and 
ten-inch stiles in a door of ordinary dimensions, as 
though the achievement were deserving of universal 
approbation. Now, after the first requisite of the 
door is attained, which is sufficient strength for the 
intended use, this excessive width of stile is entirely 
superfluous. Broad stiles, for the sake of consistency, 
induce broad panels, and the consequence is, we some- 
times see a communicating and sometimes a front 
door made with a single panel set in a single frame. 
As to the practical working of such doors we will 
let their owners answer. If they are not shrunken 
in dry weather so as to show a terrible gape at the 
unconfirmed edge, they are so expanded in damp 
weather as to preclude a chance of shutting them, a 
condition of things which needs no comment. 

Observation has led us to the conclusion that the 
stile of an ordinary door should seldom exceed six 



INTERIOR FINISH. 261 

inches; perhaps our true meaning on the subject will 
be better conveyed by saying that the size of all 
members of a door, and indeed of all panel-work, 
should be determined, first, with reference to the 
strength required, and second, with a view to prevent 
as much as possible the pernicious effects of shrinkage. 

The folding-doors of former times have given place 
to the more convenient and easily managed sliding- 
doors for extension rooms. The most perfect method 
of hanging these that has yet been or probably ever 
will be devised, is to suspend them by large sheaves 
on a concealed head-rail instead of running them on 
a floor-rail. The latter method necessarily interposes 
a line between the rooms, while the other permits the 
carpet to be continued directly through without inter- 
ruption. All the ladies, and particularly those who 
delight in entertaining large companies, will perceive 
and appreciate the advantage thus afforded. 

Frequently in the course of our descriptions of 
designs we speak of "lengthened windows" or "win- 
dows extending to the floor." We allude to the sub- 
ject here for the purpose of saying that all windows 
of this kind are intended to be fitted with balanced 
sash; the lower section being high enough to permit a 
person to walk through erect, is, when hoisted for that 
purpose, necessarily partly concealed by casing in the 
head made to receive it. In narrow openings extend- 
ing to the floor, the French casement window is some- 
times preferred; when properly made and fitted they 
answer the purpose very well: the principal objection 
to them is their interference with the arrangement of 
curtains and drapery on the inside. 

A very pretty floor for halls, vestibules, libraries, 



262 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

etc. is made of the English encaustic tiles; from the 
plate, upon which we exhibit six different patterns, 
an idea may be formed of the extent to which these 
combinations of forms and colors may be carried. 
The prices per superficial foot for furnishing and 
laying are attached to each combination represented, 
applying, however, to surfaces exceeding one square, or 
100 superficial feet; below this quantity the charges 
are necessarily a trifle higher. The superiority of 
these tiles for vestibules, halls, conservatories, etc. 
consists mainly in the fact that their beauty suffers 
little by abrasion of the colors in a long course of 
years; they are easily cleansed, and when properly 
selected with regard to harmony of color, are produc- 
tive of a gay and lively effect. 

On the subject of wooden floors, it is needless to 
make extended remark. It is well understood by 
most carpenters; indeed, the principal mystery con- 
nected with flooring, viz , the best mode of making 
and retaining tight joints, owing to the present fashion 
of covering all floors with carpets and oil-cloths, is 
considered by many as scarcely worth attention. 
Yet it must be evident, upon a moment's thought, 
that a well-laid, close-jointed floor is very desirable 
under any circumstances. How annoying it is to 
hear the creaking of a loose board as the arm-chair 
rocks to and fro, or even as you step carefully across 
the room! Milled boards, i.e. boards planed and 
matched by machinery, being, when properly wrought, 
of uniform thickness, are to be greatly preferred 
where an eye is had to economy as well as to solidity. 
Secret nailing may be resorted to where the floor is 
not to be covered, in which case the width of the 



ENGLISH ENCAUSTIC FLOORING TILE. 
Imported- & for Sale ty S. A. HARRISON, HMO CketOtulJLFhUmddphia. 



JVh.4. 




TUe 40cts. per Square Fool- laid; SO els 



M.S. 




7 lie 32fts.perSquarr toot - hiid 42 rfs. 



• 



M.2. 




Tile SZds.per Square Fbot- taid4?ds. 



M.d. 




file 34 ds.perSquareFoH - laid 44 cts. 
M.6. 




]}k 36 ds.jxr Square Foot - laid 46 ds TiU &ctr.per Square]** - laid 42 } Ct$. 

TluFrur for hiring us rstwatedfbrfborstf (M Square rbetortw. 



INTERIOR FINISH. 265 

boards should never exceed five inches, and may be 
reduced to three, with decided advantage both to ap- 
pearance and quality. 

Staircasing is a branch of joinery of so much im- 
portance that in cities it is carried on separately by a 
class of mechanics who have made it their sole study. 
It involves a considerable amount of mathematical 
knowledge, and a clear perception of the beauties of 
graceful lines, along with no small amount of tact in 
the application of that knowledge and perception. 

All staircase halls, where even a moderate amount 
of display is intended, should have an appearance of 
amplitude, in order that the ascent may be made at 
an easy grade, and the curves sweep gracefully; 
narrow, steep stairs, with abrupt curvature, are to be 
ever avoided, where anything beyond the most rigid 
economy is aimed at. 

For first-class hand-rails, mahogany has fallen into 
desuetude, rosewood inlaid with ebony being now in 
high favor, but very expensive. We know nothing 
more suitable for general use than the black walnut 
that grows so abundantly in nearly all sections of the 
Union. A little tact in staining this wood makes its 
resemblance to rosewood so nearly perfect as to puz- 
zle the amateur in detecting the imitation. But the 
natural color of walnut, when heightened by oil and 
varnish, is itself very agreeable, and by many preferred 
to the imitation of a more costly material. Fine- 
grained oak and yellow pine make very pretty risers 
and step-boards, varnished on the natural color of 
the wood; the lighter shades of walnut may also be 
used for this purpose with a very satisfactory effect. 
It is necessary, where so dark a material as the 



266 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

latter is used, that the stairs should be well lighted, 
or that the covering carpet should be of a light cast* 
in order to prevent an appearance of heaviness and 
gloom. 

A very extended treatise might be written on the 
treatment of inside wall-surfaces; and indeed it is a 
very interesting portion of the decorator's business. 
Whether it be done by painting or papering, the ex- 
ercise of judgment and good taste is no less necessary. 
"A handsome room may be quite spoiled by bad 
finishing, and by ill-chosen colors of the walls and 
furniture; and the defects of a poor one concealed or 
at least much diminished by good management in this 
respect." 

We subjoin some extracts from the " Laws of Har- 
monious Coloring," by Mr. D. Hay, of Edinburgh. 
" The first and most obvious defect in the coloring of 
rooms is when there is no particular tone fixed on for 
an apartment; that is, when one part of the furniture 
is chosen without any reference to the rest, and the 
painting done without any reference to the furniture. 
This generally produces an incongruous mixture; and 
is, in comparison to a tastefully decorated apartment, 
as far as regards coloring, what a child produces with 
its first box of paints to the work of a great master. 
A second and more common fault is the predominance 
of some bright and intense color either upon the walls 
or floor. It is evident that the predominance of a 
bright and overpowering color upon so large a space as 
the floor or wall of a room, must injure the effect of 
the finest furniture. This great error often arises 
from the difficulty of choosing a paper-hanging or 
carpet, and our liability to be bewildered among the 



INTERIOR FINISH. 267 

2 multitude of patterns which are produced : the most 

% attractive of which, on a small scale, are often from 

z this very circumstance the more objectionable in re- 

gard to their forming a large mass in an apartment, 
2 particularly as the artists who design them seem to 

i. be regulated by no fixed principles; but, from their 

I repeated deviations from the established rule of har- 

5 mony, appear to give themselves up to the vague pur- 

suit of novelty alone. A third error is introducing 
\ pale colors, which may have been well enough chosen 

, in regard to their tints, but whose particular degrees 

i of strength have not been attended to. Thus the in- 

tensity of one or more may so affect those which they 
were intended to balance and relieve, as to give them 
a faded and unfinished appearance. This may pro- 
ceed from applying the fundamental laws without any 
regard to the minutia; for although it is always neces- 
sary to subdue and neutralize such colors as are intro- 
duced in large quantities, yet when they are reduced 
by dilution alone, the effect is very different. There 
is a fourth defect and rather a common one, and that 
is, a want of the media which unite and harmonize 
an assemblage of bright colors which may in other 
respects be perfectly well arranged; for it is a rule in 
the higher branches of the art, that confusion of parts 
of equal strength should always be avoided. A room 
of this description resembles a Chinese landscape, 
where foreground and distance are jumbled together. 
An opposite effect to this is monotony, or a total want 
of variety; for some are so afraid of committing 
errors in point of harmony, that neutral tints alone 
are introduced, and sometimes one tint of this kind 
alone prevails. Variety is a quality found to exist in 



268 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

the most trifling as well as in the grandest combina- 
tion of nature's coloring; and it is, as already observed, 
in uniting and making an arrangement of various 
colors harmonious and agreeable to the eye that the 
skill of a house-painter chiefly consists. It is this 
which produces what is termed repose in a picture, a 
quality equally desirable in the coloring of an apart- 
ment." 

It is clear that the principles above enunciated 
apply with as much force to the painting of dressings 
and all interior wood-work as to the treatment of 
walls. 

Although it is entirely beyond our province to 
enter into the specific details of interior painting, we 
may add in this connection a single remark that may 
be of service to the amateur decorator, whether his 
labors are confined to the cottage or extend to the 
more pretending mansion. Whatever tints may be 
used for the walls, it has been observed that if the 
ceiling is colored a shade darker, it has the effect of 
apparently lowering its altitude, while a contrary 
course, viz., painting the ceiling of a lighter shade than 
the walls, produces a contrary result, making the story 
appear higher than it really is, and this effect is greatly 
enhanced if a moderate gradation of shade is given to 
the walls, from the base upward. This principle 
may often be applied in plain painting, where it may 
seem desirable to give an appearance of greater 
height to a room, and comes frequently into play in 
the repairs of old houses. 



The dumb waiter is most frequently used for the 
transmission of dishes and cookery between the 
kitchen and dining-room, when, as it sometimes 
happens in large houses, these apartments are located 
in different stories. 




We here give a representation of the mode of 
working. A is the movable cupboard which passes 

(269) 



270 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

up and down, containing the articles transmitted; 
this cupboard is balanced by the door C, by means of 
a cord E passing over a pulley B. The result of this 
mode of working is, that when the cupboard is down 
on the kitchen story, the aperture in the dining- 
room is closed, and vice versa. D shows the groove 
on each side which prevents an unnecessary amount 
of rubbing and the consequent friction. 



DESIGN XXXY. 

Clustered €attm$. 




Flo. 158. 



F=l 




Fio. 1W.— Pbctcipal Flook. 



t'27-2) 



DESIGN XXXV. 

It will be observed that the arrangement presented 
on the elevation before us, as illustrated by the plan, 
has been devised with an eye to economy, not only of 
materials and workmanship, but of ground surface. 
It sometimes occurs that suburban or village lots are 
to be improved so as to accommodate the greatest 
number of occupants comfortably within the limit of 
a small expenditure, and at the same time it is desir- 
able that such improvements should present a tasteful 
and agreeable appearance. 

Suppose a lot, square, or, in the form of a parallel- 
ogram, nearly square, the area of which is at best 
barely sufficient for a small garden to each of four 
houses proposed to be put on it; such lot could be 
advantageously improved by placing this cluster of 
houses in the center, and running the division walls 
or fences from one of the external angles of each of 
the projecting wings to the outer boundary, by which 
an equal division of the ground woulfl be effected. 

Rooms. — The description of one-fourth of the cluster 
is of course equally applicable to the other portion. 
The first floor, shown by fig. 159, has two rooms for 
each tenant, and a veranda 8 feet wide! The living- 
room B is 12 by 14 feet; the sitting-room is 16 by 
17 feet exclusive of the recessed window.. From the 

(2t3) 



274 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



living-room a flight of boxed winding stairs leads to 
the second floor, illustrated by fig. 160, where two 
small yet comfortable sleeping-rooms D and E are 
found, each provided with fire-places and suitable 
closets. 




Fig. 160.— Sscoaro Floo*. 



Construction. — Economy being the leading princi- 
ple in the erection of such a cluster, it is obvious that 
whatever materials could be found to answer the pur- 
pose, at moderate prices, would usually be preferred 
without much regard to the results which ultimately 
follow the use of an inferior article. Prudence dic- 
tates the use of solid materials, brick or stone for the 
walls, although wood is in good keeping with the 
style of building. 

Estimate. — With proper economy, this design can 
be erected, in the vicinity of Philadelphia, for about 
$3000. We have no doubt that in a well-timbered 
country it can be built of wood, with cellar walls 
of stone, for $500 less than the above. 



DESIGN XXXVI. 

Small iratktttn ftlia. 




Fra. 161. 




Fio. 162.— Pewcipal Floor. 



(276) 



DESIGN XXXVI. 
fmatt §ntMU& f UU. 

This is a picturesque-looking villa, and would 
make a very appropriate residence for a genteel 
family of moderate size. There is quite an exhibi- 
tion of bold rusticity, combined with an evident neat- 
ness of finish, which pleases to an equal degree the 
eye of the artist and of the mechanical connoisseur. 

The extreme piquancy of expression which this 
design would otherwise have exhibited is considerably 
subdued by the truncation of the main roof. With- 
out this, the pitch of roof would not harmonize so 
well with the round-headed windows and veranda 
arcades. 

Apartments. — Referring to fig. 162, we find the 
plan of the principal floor. The entrance to the very 
ample hall B is effected through the front piazza A; 
this hall is 12 feet wide by 29 feet long, and besides 
containing a very handsome flight of stairs, may serve 
also for a reception-room. A very fine drawing-room 
C, 16 by 24 feet, is entered on the right; while the 
dining-room E, 15 by 17 feet, is situated on the left; 
and a snug little library, 12 by 12 feet, occupies what 
might be termed an extension of the hall. Passing 
through the dining-room £, we find a flight of private 
stairs, and still farther on, the kitchen F, 12 by 16 

14 (an) 



278 



HOMESTEAD ABCHITECTUBE. 



feet. There is a back entrance to the dining-room 
through a little piazza, and also one to the kitchen. 

The second floor, explained by fig. 163, contains 
five very good chambers marked I, and a number 
of appendages, such as closets, wardrobes, etc., rarely 
found in a dwelling of this magnitude. K denotes 
the landing of the main stairs and also a small sleep- 
ing-room at the head of the private stairs; the ward- 
robes are denoted by L. 




fie. 163v— Snxnrs Flook. 



Construction. — As will be observed, this design 
has been prepared with a view to the use of rubble- 
stone in the erection of the walls. The corners are 
represented as carried up with squared stone for bond, 
which adds greatly to the architectural effect. The 
reader who has perused our former descriptions will 
perceive at a glance that slate or shingles will be the 
proper roof-covering. 

Estimate. — In a neighborhood where rubble-stone 
is readily procured, and having good facilities for the 
transportation of such material as is necessarily 
brought from a distance, the cost of this design will 
be about $6000. 



L 
X 



DESIGN XXXVII. 

JUsifctntt in t|e German f&at\it Siglt 




Fia.164. 




Fig. 166.— Principal Floor. 



(280) 



DESIGN XXXVIL 

§tMmct in fht $>tvmm Gothic £ijjk 

A very neat and lively look has this dwelling; and 
we think we may say, without being accused of self- 
laudation, we scarcely know of a plan in which so 
much convenience is united with an equal amount of 
picturesque beauty. It was devised for the accommo- 
dation of such families as may be composed of but 
few members, yet are desirous of keeping pace with 
the modern fashionable modes of conducting house- 
hold affairs. 

Apartments. — Pig. 165 exhibits the divisions of. 
the principal floor. The hall containing the staircase 
is 10 feet wide and is entered from without through 
a Gothic porch. This hall has a rear door with side- 
lights by which it communicates with the back 
piazza; it has also a side passage branching off at the 
rear end, containing the private stairs. On the right 
of the entrance hall is the drawing-room A, 28 by 18 
feet, with a bay-window of octagonal form: the apart- 
ment B is designed for a library; it is 15 by 18 feet, 
and has book-closets in three corners, while the fire- 
place occupies the fourth, by which, except for the 
recessed window, the plan would be reduced almost 
to a regular octagon. C is a very fine dining-room, 
26 by 20, with a rectangular bay-window, which 
greatly increases its amplitude. E, 17 by 18 feet, is 
the kitchen: it will be observed that a very com- 
modious butler's pantry is placed between the kitchen 

(281) 



282 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



and dining-room, which may either have communi- 
cating doors as represented, or be fitted up with 
a slide, to prevent as much as possible the scent of 
cookery from entering the dining-room, a point upon 
which some people are much more sensitive than 
others. We think it certainly desirable to exclude 
everything that betokens the proximity of the kitchen, 
but there are those who look upon it as a matter of 
indifference. An out-kitchen F, 9 by 16, completes 
the plan of the first story . 




Fro. lfl&— Siooiro Floor. 



Fig. 166, the second floor, corresponds with the 
divisions of the first. A sleeping-room K is placed 
over the kitchen, a bath-room over the pantry, and 
chambers over the other principal apartments. 

Construction. — This residence would look better 
perhaps built of the lightest shade of Trenton brown 
stone than of any other material. 

Estimate. — This house, in the neighborhood of 
Philadelphia, would cost about $5000. 



DESIGN XXXVIII. 

Ssmmdrical Cottage. 




Pio. 167. 



DE8IGN XXXIX. 




Via. 168. 



(««) 



DESIGN XXXVIII. 



What a world of rural enjoyment might be con- 
centrated within the little jcene represented by the 
figure before us ! Simple and plain, yet of a very 
decided character, the owner of such a home need 
not envy the monarch the gilded beauties of the 
palace or the toy that mankind call a scepter. 

Booms. — The first floor, shown by fig. 169, contains 





Fro. lOfci—FnCT Floor. 



Fra. 170w— Smohv Ilool 



the veranda A, a becoming shelter to the front door; 
B, at once vestibule and stair-hall; C, living-room, 11 
by 14 feet; D, family-room, 11 by 17 feet, and E, 
kitchen, 11 by 12 feet. 

Fig. 170, the second floor, contains two bed-rooms, G. 

Estimate. — Built of brick, this cottage would cost 

about $400; of stone or timber, where these materials 

are plenty, about $350. 

(285) 



DESIGN XXXIX. 

We close this series of designs with a very eco- 
nomical little cottage, to which we request the at- 
tention of the workingman who has the means to 
build himself a snug little home. Less expensive 
than the one we have just described, (fig. 167,) it is 
almost as commodious and comfortable, and, with a 
little piazza over the front door instead of the canopy 
we have given, it would be almost as picturesque. 

Booms. — A small entrance hall A, contains the 
stairs; it is about 6 by 12 feet, and affords access to 
the living-room B, lOi by 12 feet, and to the best 
room C, 10 by 17 feet. D is the kitchen. 





Flo. 171.— Fibot Floo*. 



Fro. 172.— Sboowd Floo*. 



Pig. 172 exhibits the second floor; E is the stair 
landing from which all the sleeping-rooms P are 
entered. 

Estimate. — Built in the cheapest manner, with the 
best management, this cottage may be finished for a 
trifle over §300. 
(286) 



GROUND PLANS. 
& §MbU §ww. 

This plan is devised with reference to being occu- 
pied by two families. The necessity for this often 
occurs in the improvement of town or village lots. 
Under such circumstances it is necessary to preserve 
in the aspect of dwellings as much of the rural char- 
acter as possible, and at the same time secure all the 
conveniences within reach. 

Booms. — The front entrance is at A, fig. 173; the 
hall is 6 feet wide, in which is a flight of stairs; B, 
the living-room, is 12 by 14 feet; adjoining is the 




Tie. 17&r-7lM* Tlooe. 



ftO. 174/-8B001TO JlMB. 



kitchen C, entered from the hall beneath the stair 
landing, and containing cooking-ranges, closets, and a 
side entrance; D is a parlor, and E a veranda. 

The plan of the second floor, fig. 174, exhibits K, 
the stair landing; I, bath-room; F, 6, H, chambers 
corresponding to the size of the rooms below. 

Estimate. — This house may be built in plain rural 

style, of brick, and stuccoed, two stories high, with 

cellar beneath, for about $1600. 

(28T) 



288 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



gt f lain |arm gwUiwg. 

Oub readers will observe a resemblance between 
this and the general plan of Design XXVI., with this 
difference, that while the latter is adapted by the pro- 
portions of its rooms to an elevation in the Gothic 
style, the one before us would appear much better in 
the Italian dress. 

Booms. — E, fig. 175, is a vestibule or porch, through 
which an entrance to the main hall D is effected. 




Fro. 175.— Fimt Floor. 



Fw. 170.— StOOHD Floob. 



A is the parlor, 26 by 16 feet ; B, sitting-room, and 
C, dining-room, respectively 16 by 18 feet. Beyond 
C is the kitchen F, 15 by 16 feet. 

The plan of the second floor, fig. 176, shows K the 
landing of stairs; L, dressing-room, and three fine 
chambers H. 



A I 



$amage-$ffttse anfc Stable. 




Fw. in. 




Flo. 178. 



(290 



We cannot devote much space to the consideration 
of this class of buildings, but in offering the accom- 
panying design, can do no less than make a few re- 
marks on a subject the importance of which demands 
a greater amount of time and attention than we can 
possibly bestow upon it in the present publication. 

The location of this combined stable and carriage- 
house will always be influenced more or less by the 
nature of the ground and the relative position of the 
dwelling to which it belongs. 

As a rule, however, it is desirable that the stable 
should be inconspicuous, that is, comparatively speak- 
ing; although such a building as the one here pre- 
sented, if kept at the proper distance, would not 
suffer by comparison with the finished villas of corre- 
sponding style, yet its subordinate character as a thing 
of use, will not allow of a degree of prominency that 
might be dangerous to the dignity of the dwelling. 

On fig. 178, A represents the carriage-room, 15 by 
26 feet. A wide door permits the ready ingress of 
wheeled vehicles. B is the stable, containing seven 
stalls provided with mangers, and suitable light. 

It is recommended that these windows be partially 
obscured by a translucent green blind, and that the 
walls immediately in front of the horse be painted or 
washed with green, in order to promote as much as 
possible the healthy vision of the animal. E, E, 

(891) 



292 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

are harness closets; C is a room for the coachman, or 
which may be used in unfavorable weather for mend- 
ing harness; two closets are opposite to it, in which 
oil cans, medicine bottles, etc. may be stored. D is 
an implement-room, or, under some circumstances, it 
may be used by the coachman as a sleeping-room. 

A flight of steps between the carriage-house and 
stable leads to the hay-loft, granary, etc. over; these 
are well lighted, as may be observed on the elevation, 
and may be arranged according to the wishes of the 
proprietor. 



The architect labors almost in vain, if, after all, 
when the building is completed, the embellishment of 
the surrounding grounds is neglected, or, what is 
nearly as bad, left to the tender mercies of aoi-discmt 
gardeners, who really know little more of landscape 
gardening as a fine art than mankind at large do of 
the soil and climate of the moon. It is a source of 
consolation, however, to the architect that there has 
been a great awakening on the subject latterly, in the 
United States, and that the prospect for its general 
advancement is continually brightening. Possessed 
as we are of every variety of country, from the rugged 
mountain landscape to the gentle undulations of the 
far-expanding prairie, including an amount of lake 
and river scenery unparalleled in the geography of 
any other country on the globe, we can have no com- 
plaint to make against Dame Nature, but, on the other 
hand, should feel grateful that she is so bountiful to 
the denizens of this New World, and hope that the 
field thus open before us will be ultimately improved 
in such a manner as to become, like the rural embel- 
lishments of "merrie England," a source of national 
pride. 

We are informed by history (but we must be brief 
on this point) that "the Romans were the first who 
introduced landscape gardening into England, as we 

(298) 



294 HOMESTEAD AB CHI T KC T UK E. 

perceive among the remains of their Anglo-Roman 
villas, bat after they had left that country, landscape 
gardening was little attended to, beyond the abbey 
grounds, till near the middle of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, daring the reign of Henry VIIL, when Cardinal 
Wolsey had Hampton Court laid oat to embellish the 
princely mansion he had there erected." 

All landscape gardening, from the above date down 
to the days of Kent, who flourished in the time of 
George IL, and is the reputed author of the modern 
style, was done in the ancient or geometrical mode. 
A masterly hand thus depicts its peculiarities: "A 
predominance of regular forms and right lines is the 
characteristic feature of the ancient style of gardening. 
The value of art, of power, and of wealth were at 
once easily and strongly shown by an artificial arrange- 
ment of all the materials — an arrangement the more 
striking as it differed most widely from nature. And 
in an age when costly and stately architecture was 
most abundant, as in the time of the Roman Empire, 
it is natural to suppose that the symmetry and studied 
elegance of the palace or the villa would be trans- 
ferred and continued in the surrounding gardens." 

But " Kent saw the incongruity of artificial design 
when at variance with nature. The straight walk, 
the clipped hedge, the tortured yew, sunk beneath 
the superior chastity of his taste. He made as much 
improvement as an innovator could do, who had a 
prevailing bad taste to contend with, but for which he 
was peculiarly gifted by being a historical painter. 
According to Lord Walpole, he at once leaped over 
all boundaries, and the first stroke was the destruction 
of circumscribing walls, and the introduction of the 



EMBELLISHMENT OF GROUNDS. '295 

ha-ha or sunk fence in their stead; next, the blending 
and harmonizing the lawn with the park followed, for 
he at once saw that all nature was a garden, only 
bounded by lofty hills or the distant horizon, and he 
was painter enough to feel the charms of landscape. 
He was also bold and opinionative enough to dare 
and to dictate, and born with a genius to strike out a 
great system from the twilight of imperfect essays; 
for although he realized the compositions of Poussin 
and Claude, the greatest masters in classic landscape 
painting, yet Kent, says his lordship, was neither 
without faults nor assistance, for it was Alexander 
Pope who contributed to form his taste; and the 
gardens at Carlton House in London, which he laid 
out, but since destroyed to make way for a noble 
terrace, were probably borrowed from the poet's at 
Twickenham." 

It is but justice to the memory of Addison to say 
that as early as 1712, and before the commencement 
of Kent's landscape gardening, that celebrated writer, 
in his papers on the Imagination, published in the 
" Spectator/' prepared the minds of all educated 
England for the induction of the natural mode. To 
the poet, the painter, and- the tasteful scholar, then, 
rather than to the practical man, does the world owe 
the inauguration of a system which, combining the 
beauties of nature in a harmonious manner with the 
productions of art, is destined to be coexistent with 
the truly beautiful in the human mind. 

We omit the notice of several who have distin- 
guished themselves in this profession, not on account 
of their inferiority as artists, but because we wish to 
be as brief as we can to be consistent with the nature 



296 * HQMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

of our purpose. Nearer our own time we may speak 
of Humphrey Repton, who was "a beautiful draughts- 
man and began his career as a landscape gardener 
about the year 1788." Later we have John Claudius 
Loudon, whose herculean labors as an author on 
gardening and rural architecture have contributed 
more to the diffusion of correct taste in these depart- 
ments of art, than any single writer of whom we 
have any knowledge. The first American landscape 
gardener known to the public as a practitioner of the 
art, was the late Mr. Andre Parmentier, of Brooklyn,. 
Long Island, who not only furnished plans for laying 
out the grounds of country-seats in various parts of 
the Union, but in many cases personally surveyed 
them prior to giving designs for their improvement, 
and furnished the plants and trees for the execution 
of those designs. But it was left for Andrew Jackson 
Downing to awaken and popularize a taste for sylvan 
improvements never before universal on this conti- 
nent. Hear his appeals to the ear of all America: 
"But if landscape gardening in its proper sense can- 
not be applied to the embellishment of the smallest 
cottage residence in the country, its principles may 
be studied with advantage even by him who has only 
three trees to plant for ornament, and we hope no one 
will think his grounds too small to feel willing to add 
something to the general amount of beauty in the 
country. If the possessor of the cottage acre would 
embellish in accordance with propriety, he must not, 
as we have sometimes seen, render the whole ridicu- 
lous by aiming at ambitious and costly embellish- 
ments, but he will rather seek to delight us by the 
good taste evinced in the tasteful simplicity of the 



EMBELLISHMENT OF GROUNDS. 297 

whole arrangement. And if the proprietors of our 
country villas, in their improvements, are more likely 
to run into any one error than another, we fear it will 
be that of too great a desire for display — too many 
vases, temples, and seats, and too little purity and 
simplicity of general effect." {Theory and Praetwe of 
Landscape Gardening, p. 19.) 

Surface of Ground. — As the surface of the ground 
is less easily affected by artificial means than any 
other material that comes under the care of the land- 
scape gardener, it is always the best policy to select 
the best natural surface obtainable, with an eye to the 
improvements that may be made upon it by a few 
strokes of art. The making of artificial eminences is 
a very expensive and difficult enterprise, and except 
done in strict harmony with nature, only demonstrates 
the inability of man to produce happy results, when 
in antagonism to a power so superior. The formation 
of artificial hills in the midst of a natural plain or 
level prairie fails so, much of pleasing as to appear 
ridiculous to a sensitive perception, because the little- 
ness of the artificial production is rendered painfully ap- 
parent by contrast. A perfectly level surface is, of all 
descriptions of ground, the most difficult to deal with 
artistically. The most that can be done with it, at a 
moderate rate of expense, is to diversify it by planting 
trees and creating some gentle undulations artificially, 
which, delicately performed, may appear natural. 
With a building of great magnitude, a l^vel lawn may 
be in excellent keeping, being, under such circum- 
stances, expressive of grandeur heightened almost to 
the sublime. 

Aside from this, in contrast with the asperities of a 



298 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

mountainous country, the level expansive plain be- 
comes a source of pleasurable contemplation unaffected 
by art, which is lasting as the mountains themselves. 
But the greater part of the surface of the United 
States is sufficiently diversified to render the location 
of residences easily susceptible of such improvements 
as good taste and the local character of the grounds 
may dictate. 

Approach. — The road by which access is had to the 
residence from the public highway is termed the ap- 
proach. Being a primary necessity, it is the most im- 
portant route or track that takes a place in the system 
of laying out grounds. In the ancient or geometric 
style, the approach was laid down with reference to 
a view of the front of the building, to the exclusion 
of the end elevations; but the modern or natural 
mode demands that the first view of the house shall 
not only embrace the main front, but also one of the 
adjacent ends of the building, thus giving a just im- 
pression of its character and magnitude. 

"There are two guiding principles," says Mr. Dow- 
ning, "laid down for the formation of approach roads: 
the first, that the curves should never be so great or 
lead over surfaces so unequal as to make it disagree- 
able to drive upon them; and the second, that the 
road should never curve without some reason, either real 
or apparent." 

"Nothing can be more annoying than to see an ap- 
proach or any description of road winding hither and 
thither through an extensive level lawn, toward the 
house, without the least apparent reason for the 
curves. Happily, we are not therefore obliged to 
return to the straight line; but gradual curves may 



EMBELLISHMENT OF GROUNDS. 299 

always be so arranged as to appear necessarily to wind 
around the grawps of trees which otherwise would 
stand in the way. Whenever a bend in the road is 
intended, a cluster or group of greater or less sifce, and 
breadth proportionate to the curve, should be placed 
in the projection formed. These trees, as soon as they 
attain some size, if they are properly arranged, we 
may suppose to have originally stood there, and the 
road naturally to have curved, to avoid destroying 
them." 

We quote from Mr. Repton, already noticed as one 
of the most celebrated English landscape gardeners, the 
following rules or governing principles in determining 
the position and curves of the approach, from which, 
however, it must not be inferred that it is possible to 
give rules that will apply in all cases; but they em- 
brace the elemental requisites of the approach, insisted 
upon by modern landscape gardeners, and we think 
with a great deal of consistency: — 

"First. It ought to be a road to the house and to 
that principally. 

"Second. Although not naturally the nearest road 
possible, it ought artificially be made impossible to go 
a nearer way. 

"Third. The artificial obstacles which make this 
road the nearest ought to appear natural. 

"Fourth. Where an approach quits the high road, 
it ought not to break from it at right angles, or in 
such a manner as to rob the entrance of importance, 
but rather at some bend of the public road, from 
which a lodge or gate may be more conspicuous, and 
where the high road may appear to branch from the 
approach, rather than the approach from the high road. 

15 



j 



300 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 

"Fifth. After the approach enters the park, it 
should avoid skirting along its boundary, which be- 
trays the want of extent or variety of property, 

"Sixth. The house, unless very large and magnifi- 
cent, should not be seen at so great a distance as to 
make it appear much less than it really is. 

"Seventh. The first view of the house should be 
from the most pleasing point of sight. 

"Eighth. As soon as the house is visible from the 
approach, there should be no temptation to quit it, 
(which will ever be the case if the road be at all cir- 
cuitous,) unless sufficient obstacles, such as water or 
inaccessible ground, appear to justify its course." 

Drives. — These may be laid out in conformity 
with the spirit of the above rules, observing always 
that they should assume an appearance of subordin- 
ation to the approach. A drive being intended for 
exercise and enjoyment of a more secluded nature 
than can be obtained on a public highway, should 
always be laid out with an eye to obtaining the best 
view of the beauties of the place and the surrounding 
country, from the carriage or on horseback. 

Walks, tastefully disposed, are of importance in 
every rural scene without regard to extent. Mr. 
Downing's remarks on this point are so pertinent 
that we cannot forbear quoting them: "They are in- 
tended solely for promenades or exercise on foot, and 
should therefore be dry and firm if possible at all 
seasons when it is desirable to use them. Some may 
be open to the south, sheltered with evergreens, and 
made dry and hard for a warm promenade in winter; 
others formed of closely-mown turf, and thickly shaded 
by a leafy canopy of verdure, for a cool retreat in the 



EMBELLISHMENT OF GROUNDS. 301 

midst of summer. Others again may lead to some 
sequestered spot, and terminate in a secluded rustic 
seat, or conduct to some shaded dell or rugged emi- 
nence, where an extensive prospect can be enjoyed. 
Indeed, the genius of the place must suggest the 
direction, length, and number of the walks to be laid 
out, as no fixed rules can be imposed in a subject so 
ever changing and different. It should, however, 
never be forgotten that the walk ought always to 
correspond to the scene it traverses, being rough 
where the latter is wild and picturesque, sometimes 
scarcely differing from a common footpath; and more 
polished as the surrounding objects show evidences of 
culture and high keeping. In direction, like the ap- 
proach it should take easy, flowing curves, though it 
may often turn more abruptly at the interposition of 
an obstacle. The chief beauty of curved and bending 
lines in walks lies in the new scenes which by means 
of them are opened to the eye. In the straight walk 
of half a mile, the whole is seen at a glance, and 
there is too often but little to excite the spectator to 
pursue the search ; but in the modern style, at every 
few rods a new turn in the walk opens a neyv prospect 
to the beholder, and * leads the eye,' as Hogarth graph- 
ically expressed it, 'a kind of wanton chase/ continu- 
ally affording new refreshment and variety." 

Architectural Decorations — Trees, etc. — In no 
other way can great changes be effected in a land- 
scape more easily than by planting; every lover of 
nature, and every observer of the rapid development 
of the beauties of vegetation and foliage, particularly 
when under the training of skillful hands, will in a 
moment perceive that of all the elements of rural 



302 HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. ' 

beauty, none occupy a more prominent place than 
trees and grass. Add to these the embellishments 
afforded by flowers and creepers, and we have sources 
of enjoyment within the reach of all, from the pos- 
sessor of a few roods to the proprietor of an unlimited 
number of acres. 

Now, for the simple cottage these natural embellish- 
ments, under refined culture, are the most rational, 
and with enough of the display of art to insure its 
. ready recognition, are in full harmony with rural life. 

Our limits prevent us from entering on the subject 
of planting; we can only remark that of all modes of 
embellishment, that accomplished by planting trees, 
vines, and flowers is most worthy of universal atten- 
tion. Next to having a home is the feeling that it 
should wear the appearance of a pleasant home, and 
nothing tends more to give the impression of such 
than the presence of verdant foliage and beautiful 
flowers, and these bearing the tokens of attention 
from some human hand. Their presence is the type 
of prosperity, and their absence, of desolation. 

A competent landscape gardener should always be 
consulted in laying out the grounds of a very ex- 
tensive villa. The experience acquired by actual 
practice is necessary in the execution of any design 
or leading idea that may be conceived by the proprie- 
tor or artist. Thousands of beautiful designs (on 
paper) are devoid of beauty in execution, for want of 
a little tact and judgment in those who execute them. 

PoLrapeUy vases, and statuary denote the presence of 
art in a pointed and emphatic manner, and are incon- 
sistent with scenery so intensely rural and domestic 
as should always surround a small cottage. But 



Fft 



EMBELLISHMENT OF GROUNDS. 



303 



osSA 
fekftir 

faotf 

ntia 

iirii 
tit* 
im 

it 




where a house assumes high architectural pretensions, 
the harmony between art as exhibited in the house, 
and nature as exhibited in the surrounding scenery, 
is delicately maintained by the introduction, to a 
greater or less extent, of architectural and sculptural 
decorations. 

Summer-houses or covered seats are very pleasant 
features, whether contemplated as a portion of scenery 
or as places of resort in fine weather. The pavilion and 
temple form are frequently adopted for these, where 
the classic style of architecture prevails. In many 
cases, however, rustic seats should be chosen in pre- 
ference to the architectural kind. Of the latter, we 
give three examples. Fig. 179 evinces some degree 




Fia. 179. 



of the Gothic taste in its cusping and pinnacles ; it 
should always be so situated as to be seen in connec- 



804 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



tion with the house, thereby exhibiting its subordina- 
tion to the principal object in the landscape. 




Fie. 180. 



Fig. 180 should also be seen in connection with the 
house; its aspect, though somewhat rustic, has never- 
theless too much polish in it to admit of an entire 
separation from the nucleus of improvement, which 
the house in all landscape gardening is justly assumed 
to be. 

Fig. 181 is a high type of the rustic covered seat. 
It is, however, easily and cheaply made, being built by 
setting cedar posts in the ground, forming a frame- 
work for the roof by bending flexible limbs to the 
required curves, and covering it with shingles or thatch. 
The other portions of the rustication are completed by 
selecting limbs of irregular form and securing them 



— -] 



EMBELLISHMENT OF GROUNDS. 



305 



fill sat 

Oft 



in place with nails; the limbs in every case retaining 
their bark and natural roughness. In this kind of 
work, although it must be admitted that considerable 




no. i8i. 



skill is requisite to give it a tasteful appearance, it 
should be borne in mind that the least display of the 
use of tools accords best with the character of the 
work. Inasmuch as this sort of structure evinces as 
much of nature as it does of art, and harmonizes well 
with sylvan scenery, it may be placed in any spot at 
a distance from the house, secluded or exposed; but 
if exposed so as to be embraced in a connected view 



306 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 




no. ltu. 



with the house, it ought to be in such a manner as 

to exhibit, by the 
agency of walks, 
its intimate rela- 
tion to the house, 
notwithstanding 
the intervention 
of a considerable 
distance. 

Fig.l82isavery 
neat covered seat 
for almost any locality. 
A prospect tower is a 
delightful place of re- 
sort for the purpose of 
obtaining a coup (Tail 
or bird's-eye view of 
the surrounding coun- 
try. Fig. 183 is a highly 
finished specimen of a 
prospect tower; as a 
general rule for struc- 
tures of this sort, they 
should have a less arti- 
ficial appearance than 
this, and can be built 
with great success after 
the manner prescribed 
for the summer-house, 
fig. 181. 

The Conservatory.— 
A brief notice of this 
very desirable append- 




Fio. 183. 



EMBELLISHMENT OF GROUNDS. 307 

age to the villa residence must answer the promise 
made in the early portion of this work. The best 
form for conservatories, in view of economy and the 
best practical working, is undoubtedly the parallel- 
ogram, although sometimes, for the sake of external 
appearance, they are made circular or polygonal in 
plan. We take for granted that it is well known 
that the roof, as well as the sides of a conservatory 
where plants are to be successfully grown, must be 
made of glass. A southern aspect is the best, 
yet east and west exposures do tolerably well, where 
the admission of light is facilitated by plenty of glass. 
These remarks apply particularly to conservatories 
attached to the house, as those in some of the pre- 
ceding designs. 

All conservatories ought to be provided with means 
for warming them thoroughly, at pleasure, and al- 
though the warm-air furnace with common square flue 
is one of the most simple and inexpensive modes in 
use, it is inferior to the steam and hot water systems 
for this purpose: the latter dispenses a moist and 
genial temperature, and is therefore much more condu- 
cive to the healthy growth of plants. The pipes con- 
ducting the steam or hot water should be concealed 
from view: perhaps the best plan of doing this is to 
place them in a longitudinal air-chamber under the , 
walk, with perforated top to permit the distribution 
of heated air; the diffusion of which is greatly accel- 
erated by an opening from the outer air to the hot air 
passage, the admitted air becoming immediately 
heated and passing into the conservatory. 

Fig. 184 is a design for a large conservatory. The 
center building is intended for an implement-room on 



308 



HOMESTEAD ARCHITECTURE. 



the first story; the second story may be used for the 
gardener's sleeping-room; while the lantern serves for 
a look-out, being reached by a small flight of stairs. 




fio. 184. 



A cellar for the furnaces necessarily occupies the most 
of the area beneath this portion of the building, 
horizontal flues, containing the hot water or steam- 
pipes, extending thence into each wing. 



APPENDIX. 



Garden Vases. — No decoration adds more to the natural 
beauties of a country place at so little expense as a few vases filled 
with flowering plants. Any expedient therefore that furnishes so 
much gratification on such terms will be welcomed by those wishing 
to improve their grounds. 




FM.18T. 




FiQ.m 

We present two cats, figs. 185 
and 186, of terra-cotta vases, which 
favorably exhibit the degree of per- 
fection to which this mode of orna- 
ment may be carried. The material 
is well snited for the purpose of growing flowers ; being a non- 
conductor and slightly porous, it is decidedly preferable to iron. 
Great improvements have been made latterly in the manufacture 
of terra-cotta vases, both as regards quality and design, and the 
manufacturer warrants them to stand exposure to the weather in 
any climate. 

(809) 



310 



APPENDIX. 



Chimney Ton. — The cats here given represent tops for chim- 
neys made of terra-cotta, vitrified, so that they are not liable to 
injury from the action of coal gas, which is so injurious to brick 
chimneys. As an article of ornament, we certainly approve of 
their use, particularly on the cottage or villa residence, as they 
make an appropriate and light finish to chimneys that cannot be 
produced in brick. In England they are considered indispensable 
to the finish of a cottage building. 














ttH 




no. 190. 

For cottages in the Gothic style, 
these tops should be at least five feet 
high, with an additional base of brick 
of about two feet ; in the Italian style, 
from three to four feet is a proper 
height 

Flues and Pipes. — Latterly, smoke 
and air flues have been made of terra- 
cotta, of dimensions suitable for all 
purposes. They are made in pieces of about 18 inches in length 
and from 4by8tol2byl8 inches sectional area. 

The value and economy of drain pipes made of this material is 
too well known to need comment here. 

Much credit is due to Mr. S. A. Harrison, of Philadelphia, for 
the manner in which he has conducted the manufacture and sale of 
the above articles. His warerooms contain a collection of stat- 
uary, vases, etc., of terra-cotta, worthy of a visit even from persons 
not wishing to purchase. 



Fig. 188. 



/ 



•M* LLVi 8 * 







"Walson^liiTiL Phjla. 



gnxmtnxt. 



In addition to the architectural department, we include in this 
volume a series of designs for appropriate furniture. The draw- 
ings are taken from the original articles, composing a part of the 
stock of the celebrated furniture establishment of Geo. J. Hen- 
kelfl, Philadelphia. 

The appropriate furnishing of a house or room in harmony 
with the style of architecture is of as much importance as the 
preservation of the order of architecture is on the exterior. Har- 
mony in style of the furniture with the character and purpose of 
the room — with the colors of the furniture covering, carpet, 
paper-hangings, or fresco ornaments and the drapery — is important 
in producing that effect which is so pleasing to cultivated taste. 
Lavish expenditure on ornament does not always produce the 
effect desired, and many rooms, where luxury without taste pre- 
dominates, only serve to display the wealth of the owner. In 
every mechanical business appertaining to the erection and finishing 
of a house, the owner has from necessity to rely on the competency 
of the architect, the mason, carpenter, plasterer, painter, and 
others, from the fact that he cannot see the house until their skill 
has produced it according to the plan. But when the furniture is 
required, it is found in such abundance, in every style and quality 
ready finished, that the purchaser is tempted to make examina- 
tion of all the stores. The result is, his ideas become confused, 
style and ultimate effect are disregarded, and, in a majority of 
cases, he is dissatisfied with his furniture when placed in the 
rooms, after having exhausted his patience and money in the 
selection and purchase. How easy it is to avoid all responsi- 
bility by selecting a cabinet-maker who understands his business 
thoroughly, both in designing and constructing, and placing that 
confidence in his skill which is unavoidably reposed in the archi- 
tect and builder i The responsibility then rests where it should, 
on the cabinet-maker; the cost would also be less, and that pleas- 
ing, effect would be produced which is difficult to describe but 

(311) 



I 



812 APPENDIX. 

which carries with it the impress of correctness. The eye may 
be pleased for a time with abortive and showy designs and flashy 
colors, yet a reaction is sure to follow, bringing with it disgust 
and the desire for a change ; bat with graceful designs appropri- 
ate for the purpose intended, with tasteful harmony of colors, or 
in contemplating beanty in life, pictures representing life or grace- 
ful and characteristic representation of inanimate subjects, the 
eye is never wearied. 

The plates accompanying this volume contain the prominent arti- 
cles required in each room, just sufficient to give a general idea of 
what is required without going into extended detail. Before 
proceeding to a description of the articles represented by them, 
we will detain our readers with a brief account of the materials 
and manufacture of modern furniture. 

In explaining the mechanical construction of cabinetware it 
will be necessary to describe the nature and quality of the different 
materials used, and in doing so we will first give a description of 
the woods, both foreign and domestic, which are most in favor for 
beauty and durability, beginning .with rosewood or palissandre. 
The rosewood used in all civilized countries for furniture and 
pianos is a native of Brazil ; an inferior article is found in other 
parts of America south of the United States. Brazilian rose- 
wood is the most expensive of all woods in general use in Europe 
and America, and is celebrated for its beautifully figured grain ; 
great skill is exercised in imitating its grain, in front doors for 
houses and in various kinds of cheap cabinetware and in carved 
legs for pianos. It is a very porous wood, although so hard and 
firm, and contains an acrid oil which destroys the adhesive quali- 
ties of glue. This oil must be removed by steaming or by long 
seasoning ; steaming is preferable, as the wood looks fresher and 
the grain is more perfectly defined if seasoned quickly by this 
process. Time in seasoning darkens the wood too much when 
exposed to the action of the atmosphere. Rosewood should al- 
ways be worked solid in sofas and chairs in the part where the 
sections are not wide, and where a slight warping would not be 
observed. In chamber furniture, or in any article where there are 
wide, plain surfaces, or in long sections, even if narrow, it should 
always be veneered on soft wood, the growth of the country or 
latitude in which the furniture is to be used. 

It is certain that nature has adapted the wood of a country to 



FURNITURE. 313 

$ the wants of its inhabitants ; for instance, French cabinet-makers 

r veneer fine woods on oak such as grows in Europe, and it answers 

i well for the purpose there, as the climate is moist and wood does 

► not shrink so much as it does here.; the oak is also of a softer and 

r more porous nature. In America, cabinet-makers would not dare 

to use oak for that purpose, as it is of much closer grain ; poplar, 
pine, ash, or cherry is much better. Rosewood is imported in 
« rough logs, most generally split in two pieces through the heart, 

and sold in this condition almost exclusively by weight; it is very 
rugged and gnarled, and is very valuable, bringing, in rough logs, 
from 4 to 15 cents a pound. The finest-grained logs are cut with 
circular saws into veneers, yielding, with careful sawing, from fif- 
teen to twenty veneers to the inch. This veneer is used by cabinet 
and piano makers, and for fancy boxes, etc.; a fine rosewood piano 
is only covered with rosewood the fortieth part of an inch in thick- 
ness, and it is well that it is; the thinner the veneering is on the 
work, the better it will stand the changes of the climate. A 
veneer of this thickness possesses great contractile power, — in fact 
it is almost incredible; a plank of solid wood, six inches thick 
and two feet wide, can be warped £ of an inch by the contraction 
of a veneer one thirty-second part of an inch thick. . This is 
caused by the glue wetting and swelling the veneer which the wet 
glue penetrates, while it does not penetrate sufficiently into the 
plank to have the same effect on it. The action of the atmo- 
sphere in drying the veneer, when it is firmly glued, causes each 
particle to contract, and the instant contraction of particles is 
sufficient to draw the plank as described. It therefore requires 
great skill in the construction of furniture to avoid warping and 
shrinking. 

Walnut is a native of this country, and is found in every section 
from Canada to the Gulf States; like all other wood, the further 
North the wood grows, the softer and more porous the grain be* 
comes. The walnut from Canada is less soft and porous, and is 
only used (without veneering) for the commonest furniture. The 
. walnut from the rich Ohio and Indiana bottom lands is of fine 
color and quality for cabinet making, and is famous for fine 
crotch curl or feather veneers. This is formed by the interlock- 
ing of the grain of the wood where a limb branches from the 
trunk. Sometimes an excrescence or wart is found on a tree, 



314 APPENDIX. 

which, when sawed across the grain, resembles tortoise shell in 
figure. 

These warts sometimes weigh as much as a ton, and are very 
valuable. The walnut of Pennsylvania, Virginia, New Jersey, and 
Delaware is of very close grain, and on that account is used ex- 
clusively by the government for gun stocks ; it also makes beautiful 
and excellent furniture, but it is much more difficult to work than 
any other walnut, and is not used to much extent for that pur- 
pose. Cabinet-makers prefer, as a general thing, to work the softer 
or Northern wood; Albany, New York, is the great depot for 
walnut timber, as it is there received from Canada and the Lake 
States, and selected and measured ready for market. The natural 
color of Northern walnut is a greenish brown, that of the Middle 
and Southern States is of a reddish purple. Walnut contains aa 
acrid oil which will decompose copal varnish, and alcohol must 
be used to neutralize its effects. Discoveries have been made of 
late years that add much to the beauties of walnut. The addition 
of dye woods to the alcohol produces nearly the color of rosewood ; 
this, when properly done, is beneficial to its appearance, and im- 
proves its durability in furniture. An imitation of this process 
is made by using asphaltum or black varnish diluted, but it gives 
a dirty-black color, obscures the grain of the wood, and is easily 
detected by a purchaser. The grain of the wood when properly 
colored should show all of the figure perfectly, and be merely 
changed in color from its original green hue to that of a rich nut 
brown, shading on red, which is the natural color of the best rose- 
wood. Some persons may object to having the walnut stained, 
but they should bear in mind that rosewood has to be toned up with 
red sanders or dragon's-blood, mahogany darkened with linseed 
oil, oak with turmeric, and maple to be whitened in some cases 
with oxalic acid. As walnut is made more beautiful by judicious 
coloring, it is certainly a great advantage. Walnut worked in 
antique sculptured carvings and mouldings is best oiled with lin- 
seed oil, and is finished by this process to bring out the orna- 
ments in bold relief. After applying several coats of boiled oil, 
and when nearly dry rubbing with a bristle brush, it becomes a 
good imitation of bronze. This character of furniture is very 
desirable for libraries and dining-rooms; it should be selected 
only for its grotesque beauty or allegorical representation. The 
reason for oiling this style of work is to bring out in relief the 



FUBNITUKE. 315 

carving; a bright polish destroys the fine lines, and consequently 
the effect is lost. Oiled finish should never be used on furniture 
with wide panels or surfaces of any kind, as it will not stand 
the changes of heat and cold in a house. At present, much 
chamber furniture is finished in oil to avoid the expense of var- 
nishing. When walnut is well seasoned and well worked, and the 
grain filled with good copal varnish so as to show no pores, but 
is as perfect on the surface as glass, it will wear as well as any 
wood that is used ; some of the old family pieces that were brought 
from Germany in the early settlement of our country and which 
are still preserved as curiosities, justify this assertion. Wood 
that is finished in oil will absorb the heat to a great extent and 
cause annoyance by shrinking, which will disfigure the furniture ; 
too much care cannot be exercised on the part of the purchaser 
in the selection, and the cabinet-maker in the construction. You 
can test this comparison in a room where oiled and varnished work 
are subjected to the same heat: put one hand on a piece of each 
kind and you will find the oiled wood warm from the heat it has 
absorbed, and the varnished work comparatively cold, as the bright 
polish reflects the heat. 

Maple is exclusively an American wood, and is found in greatest 
perfection in New York and in all the New England States. It 
is found in great variety, and although the outside appearance is 
very similar, the grain of trees growing contiguous is entirely dif- 
ferent; the bird's eye, blister, curl, and a conglomeration of all 
kinds can be had from a rood of ground. Maple is in great de- 
mand in Europe, and has taken the place of satinwood for the 
interior finish of cabinets, wardrobes, bureaus, etc. In Europe it 
is dyed various colors, and the effect of the bird's eye in green or 
blue for chamber furniture is very beautiful ; when dyed green or 
blue it is much improved by judicious introduction of gilt mould- 
ings. No doubt in a few years maple will be foremost in the 
manufacture of all kinds of furniture ; but it must bide its time 
until fashion demands it. 

Mahogany has been the best wood that the world has produced 
for all purposes to which it has been applied, from ship building 
to the finest cabinet making. We say "has been," because the 
mahogany that is used now is not to be compared to that in use 
ten or fifteen years ago. It was first accidentally introduced into 
England from St Domingo, and rose speedily and deservedly into 

16 



316 APPENDIX. 

popular favor, so much so, that for many years it was almost ex- 
clusively used throughout the civilized world for the finest cabinet- 
ware. Like our native pine, and in fact like all other kinds of 
wood, the farther north the mahogany grows the softer the grain 
becomes and the less valuable. The forests of St. Domingo pro- 
duced what was wanted until all the wood on the seaboard was cut 
off; then all accessible places in the mountains were denuded of 
it, until St. Domingo mahogany is a rarity, and is only procured 
by immense labor in transportation from the valleys, over the 
' mountains to the seaboard. It grows to a large size in Cuba and 
Honduras, but it is of a common quality. A very hard and fine 
wood is in great quantity in Mexico ; it is also found on the coast 
of Africa : this last is familiarly known as nigger wood by cabi- 
net-makers. Thus the grain in beauty and the wood in quality 
graduates : very hard wood in Africa; south side of St. Domingo 
softer, north side of St. Domingo is still softer, south side of 
Cuba is next, north side of Cuba is very soft and with that found 
in Honduras is called "bay wood." This is the sickly, yellow 
wood that is now called mahogany; it is scarcely deserving of the 
name ; we have frequently seen bureaus with the ends and front « 
rails of a yellow color, not much different from varnished pine, 
and fine dark and rich colored wood on the drawer fronts. The 
dark rich wood is St. Domingo or south side of Cuba wood, the 
other is bay wood, which last is in fact but a degree removed 
from the Spanish cedar that is used all over the world for making 
cigar boxes ; it is also a species of mahogany. The mutations 
of fashion are curious; mahogany, which was once the most 
favored of all woods for the finest cabinetware, is now in the 
United States used, most exclusively by Eastern manufacturers of 
cfceap furniture, for the Southern and West India markets. Occa- 
sionally we find a fine set of mahogany chamber furniture, but 
there being no demand for it, it grows old in the maker's hands. 
Oak is a very difficult and treacherous wood to work into furni- 
ture, a* it will warp, no matter how well seasoned. It wears 
dirty in the grain from use, and will probably never be in more 
demand than at present The Canada oak is the best for furni- 
ture, as it is soft and open grained ; oak furniture properly made 
is expensive, and unless it is well made is not of much service 
except for strength. It will grow dark with age if left unvar- 
nished so that the atmosphere may operate on it; when dark and 



FURNITURE. 317 

old it is most rained in Europe. But what is the use of waiting 

* for oak to grow dark when we can produce the same effect and 

* better furniture with walnut ? We hear of English oak furniture 
i ' that has been in use for centuries and still looks as if it would 
► resist the ravages of time for centuries to come. This is true, but 
x we must not confound the English oak furniture with our native 
i oak ; the English style for furniture has always been massive, and 

* we may say clumsy, and with the quantity of wood contained in 
i an article in combination with its passive structure, it is no matter 
u of surprise that it is durable. The old pieces contained in the 
it ancient abbeys and other noted buildings are as black as walnut and 

* are all emblematically carved ; almost any wood treated in the 
& same manner would endure equally well. Oak was used in olden 
& times all tnrough Europe for massive furniture; and great art 
3f and skill was evidently exercised in working out carved panels 
>i and mouldings; many of these panels and ornaments are still in 
& existence in different form. In the destruction of some of the 
^ fine buildings and in the alteration of others that contained them, 
lb many were preserved, and by careful application some splendid 
^n - pieces of furniture constructed from them. This originated 
p l£ the style now so much in favor called by some Antique, and by 
ty Frenchmen, Renaissance, or revival of old style. This term is 

iji applicable also to the revival of Elizabethan, Louis XI V., Louis 

'jjj XV., Louis XVI., and others. To make an imitation of the old 

Ljg, wood, the new oak (which is yellow in color) is dyed with nut- 

•£ galls and other composition. But walnut is even now preferred 

-' • to oak for this purpose. 

. a. Ormolu Furniture. — This is a misnomer, but as it is best 

IB * ■ 

; known by that name we will describe the wood and other-materials 

_ used in making it. In Europe pear wood is used, in America 

to cherry is substituted for pear wood, from the difficulty of procuring 

*\ the latter; pear wood is of a light color, about the same as beech, 

• and is very solid and close grained. After the furniture is put 

} together, the wood is soaked with a solution of logwood chips, 

then diluted copperas and vinegar is applied on the logwood 

1 . ' while wet. The chemical action while it is drying produces a 

r . brilliant black, equal to the, best ebony. When relieved by 

J . fire-gilt ornaments and mouldings it is what is called ormolu fur- 

* % niture, and is the most effective and expensive style of furniture 
uD , for drawing-rooms. An imitation of this beautiful article is 



318 APPENDIX. 

made with cherry wood and lacquered ornaments; but we might 

as well substitute paste for diamonds and sell them as genuine 

\s^* gems. Ormolu is a metallic composition of 58 per cent, copper 

/>v^^and 42 per cent, brass; this composition is particularly required 

^fr*? ^ -for fine fire-gilding, and when cast in chaste ornaments and well 

*^'s gilt does not tarnish any more than fine gold; it can be cleaned 

^7 after fifty years' use and be equal to new. The imitation is made 

of the same material that is used for chandeliers and gas pipes, 

and is lacquered to imitate gilding : this, of course, is not near 

so expensive as fire-gilding, and is of questionable taste. 

Boule work (or buhl) is very elegant furniture. An artist 
makes the design, for instance, for a table top, in scroll and flower 
work, the ground to be well covered with fine figure, so that the 
plain parts of the design shall be about equal to the amount of 
ornament, avoiding large figures and plain surfaces. The cabinet- 
maker then takes about six sheets of thin brass and six sheets of 
thin tortoise shell of the size of the table top, placing them to- 
gether alternately, with sufficient adhesive substance to hold them 
firmly together. The design, after being lithographed and printed 
on thin paper, is pasted on both sides of the prepared brass and 
shell, being careful to have them exactly opposite. Two men with a 
saw made of half of a watch spring, and with very fine teeth, saw 
from each side so exactly to the pattern that when they have 
followed all of the lines and sawed the design loose from the 
ground work, they may produce twelve table tops, that is, the re- 
moved parts of shell will fit in the brass and the brass will fit in 
the tortoise shell, making six table tops with the design in tortoise 
shell and brass filling, and six with the design in brass with shell 
filling. The crevices left from the kerf of the saw are filled with 
composition which can scarcely be perceived ; it then is glued on 
the under wood by the usual process : a very strong glue must be 
used to hold the brass to the under wood. The art of making 
boule work is not much known or practiced in this country, and 
it would not be of much benefit to the makers, as the demand for 
such expensive articles is so limited. It is mostly made in Paris, 
where they can duplicate designs or articles (which is the economy 
in its manufacture) to a great extent from having the whole 
world for customers. The boule furniture made for sale in Paris 
will not wear well in our Northern States, as the brass will not 
contract with the shrinking of the under wood, but bulges out and 



»*;;: 



FURNITURE. 319 

defaces the furniture. It is readily repaired if put in the hands 
fc:c of competent workmen; French cabinet-makers who understand 

t .T7 the nature of onr climate can make bonle work to wear perfectly 

rw j satisfactory, even when hot air is used to warm rooms. 

Ia ^ Having described the leading wood used by cabinet-makers, it 

will be pertinent to our subject to describe materials and pro- 
cesses of varnishing the various kinds of marble and mirrors, and 
the upholstering or stuffing. 

Copal varnish is made of gum copal, spirits of turpentine, and 
linseed oil; gum copal is found in the deserts of Africa: the best 
is from Zanzibar. It is found by the natives in the sand, and natu- 
tg ralists differ about its origin, some saying that it exudes continu- 

. ally from the earth through the sand and becomes hard by expo- 

sure, others saying that it is a vegetable deposit of the nature of 
other gums, and that the trees which have produced it have dis- 
appeared, and the gum now found was formed centuries ago. 
It is a curious natural phenomenon, despite such explanations. It 
is the hardest gum known, and cannot be cut or dissolved with 
either alcohol or turpentine, but must be reduced to a fluid state 
by melting. The gum is put in large kettles over a slow fire, 
and, when melted, turpentine and linseed oil are added. When 
this varnish is put on furniture, the turpentine and the vola- 
tile part of the oil evaporate and leave a solid deposit of pure 
gum, and one which will resist the action of the atmosphere 
and to a great extent will resist water. Imitations of copal var- 
nish are made of rosin instead of gum copal, and are used only on 
cheap cabinetware, and by those who manufacture wholesale, as 
the difference in price is of importance in finishing cheap goods, 
the common article being worth from 75 cents to $1.50 per gallon, 
while the best copal brings from $2. 50 to $3. 50 per gallon. Spirits 
varnish is a quick drying but not a durable varnish, and is used for 
small surfaces, such as cane-seat chairs; it is made of gum shellac 
dissolved in spirits of wine. Gum sandrac is also used in this 
way. European cabinet-makers do not use copal varnish on fur- 
niture ; they use but little of any kind of varnish, only enough to 
finish up fine carving when they cannot reach in the crevices to 
polish. 

French polish is made of gum shellac and spirits of wine; it 
is put on with a linen rag moistened with sweet oil ; it requires a 
great deal of labor, bnt when finished it is beautiful, and much pref- 



131 




320 APPENDIX. 

Arable to varnished work. Unfortunately for us the polish evapo- 
rates so soon in oar climate that all attempts to introduce it have 
failed, excepting in the finishing of small fancy articles. Linseed 
oil is used for oiling mahogany to make it dark and rich in color 
before polishing; it is also much used for finishing sculptured 
walnut, as it leaves a resinous substance in the pores of the wood 
after the volatile part has evaporated. The resin becomes hard 
after a long time, and, after several applications of oil and brisk 
brushing with a moderately hard brush, (when it is almost dry,) it 
leaves a hard polished surface which is very serviceable and ap- 
propriate for fine sculptured ornaments. 

Marbles of various kinds are extensively used on furniture, both 
for utility and ornament. The finest quality of marble is from 
the quarries on the Straits of Gibraltar; some few, such as Ten- 
nessee (which has been used extensively on the new Capitol exten- 
sion in Washington, D. C.,) and white imitation statuary which is 
found in Vermont, and some small figured mottled marble from 
Virginia, are used by cabinet-makers. Occasionally a large 
boulder of calcareous spar is found in limestone veins in Virginia, 
but not in sufficient quantity to become an article of prominence, 
i althongh it is very beautiful. The marbles principally in use are 
/ j ..white Italian, black and gold Italian, pink and yellow Lisbon, 
/ - j/ j . jftrocadilla, Sienna, white Italian statuary, and mosaic. Broca- 
. .\\ V dilla and Sienna are the most fashionable and are also the most 
\ expensive, as the supply is limited and the demand great. The 
quarries belong mostly to fraternities of monks, who only have 
sufficient quarried to produce the amount of revenue required for 
their support. These marbles are used for center-table tops, 
etageres, cabinets, and other articles of drawing-room furni- 
ture. For bureaus and washstands, white marble, either statu- 
ary or white Italian, is in general use. In selecting chamber 
furniture it is well to get the best white hard marble, as it will not 
absorb grease nor soil so easily as the soft chalky stone will, and it 
is also much stronger. The difference is easily ascertained, as hard 
marble will ring like sound china, and the soft or common marble 
will sound like cracked china. All kinds of marble are imported 
in large blocks, and sold by the cubic foot. The blocks are 
placed on trestles and from ten to thirty steel bands, which are 
placed in a frame at such distance apart as the marble is required 
in thickness when cut This frame is propelled backward and for- 



FURNITURE. 321 

ward by steam power, and by friction with coarse, bard sand (with 
which they are fed) and plenty of water, separates the block into 
slabs. The slab is then worked to the form required with chisel 
and mallet ; it is then ground level with fine sand on a circular 
wheel, and afterward polished with a paste composition and with 
hones. There are some very beautiful figured marbles which will 
not take a polish and are of no value ; this is particularly the case 
with a fine green and white spotted stone, some of which is very 
much like verd-antique, which in the slab looks very valuable, but 
all attempts to polish it have failed. There are some rare mar- 
bles which we never see in America and which are fabulously 
valuable. We have heard of an English nobleman who paid six 
thousand pounds sterling for one center-table top of malachite. 
Small specimens of this stone worked in ornaments are in the 
possession of some gentlemen here who have brought them from 
Russia as curiosities. The Italians make center-table tops very 
beautiful in mosaic, and veneering in small pieces in imitation of 
mosaic. These are made extensively at Palermo, and visitors to 
Europe very frequently bring home the marble tops and have them 
handsomely fitted up as souvenirs of their travels. 

Mirrors are of various qualities ; the best is the warm colored, 
white, French plate, which is very thick and is made of the best 
materials. This glass will not decompose or become frosted. The 
other qualities are a bluish-white French plate, (which is also 
very thick,) half-white Belgian, and several qualities of green 
German. It is very easy to distinguish quality by comparison ; 
the best French mirrors reflect a warm and natural color, while 
other kinds shade on blue or green, according to quality. 

Curled hair enters largely into the aggregate of material used 
in making furniture; the best is brought from South America, 
where wild cattle and horses abound, and where the principal 
value of the slaughtered animal is its hide and hair. Hair is im- 
ported in bales, and consists of the tails and manes. The long 
horse hair is selected for hair-cloth, and the next in length for 
brush making. The balance is twisted very tightly into ropes to 
give it the necessary curl; it is then boiled for a time, and, after 
being dried in kilns, it is unraveled : this fixes the curl or twist 
permanently. In this form it is used for stuffing furniture and mat- 
tresses. An inferior quality of domestic cattle hair is used in 
cheap upholstery, but it always retains the odor of the barn- 




822 APPENDIX. 

yard, and in damp weather it is offensive when used to stuff sofas, 
chairs, or mattresses. In the West, where hogs are slaugh- 
tered in such great numbers, they save the bristles ; by mix- 
ing these with cattle hair a cheap substitute for South American 
hair is afforded. It is, however, a dangerous article for house- 
keepers, as it generates moths, and is the prolific cause of great 
increase of this domestic pest. Tow is also used in connection 
with hair in medium class goods, and is used alone in stuffing 
what is called Eastern or Yankee furniture. The consumption of 
hair in the different branches of business is enormous, and when 
we reflect that it requires the hair from thirty horses or bullocks 
to make one good mattress, or the hair from ten to stuff one sofa, 
we can form some idea of the number that is slaughtered to supply 
the demand of the world. The hair from all of the domestic 
cattle which are slaughtered each year in the Union would scarcely 
supply the City of Philadelphia with the quantity required for her 
various manufactories of cabinetware, mattresses, carriages, rail- 
road cars, and other branches of industry which, for the promotion 
of comfort and utility, demand this material. 

Furniture covering and curtain material comprise an immense 
variety of both silk and woolen manufactures, separate or in com- 
, bination. The articles most in use are tapestry, brocades, broca- 
telle, plush, reps, and hair-cloth. French tapestry is now made of 
beautiful patterns, and is so neat an imitation of Gobelin that it 
looks almost as well. Tapestry is made of woolen groundwork, and 
silk medallion figures ingeniously woven in. The effect is superb, 
and it will retain its colors longer than any class of exclusively silk 
goods. The fashion at present for the finest furniture is medal- 
lion tapestry. Brocade, lampas, brocatelle, and lampisade are all 
rich silk goods, and much of the same character. The price is 
regulated by the number of colors introduced and the quantity of 
silk in it-r-brocades having the most silk and the most colors, and 
brocatelle the least. These goods will be used so long as the 
human eye delights to dwell on the beautiful. For elegance there 
is nothing to compare with silk as drapery, and, although a prudish 
taste or a desire for change may banish silk for a time, it will be 
again revived, to fill a more prominent part than ever. 

Plush is made of goats' hair, woven with the pile to stand erect, 
like velvet, and is very durable. Common plush, for cheap fund- 



FURNITURE. S23 

tare and coaches, is made of wool; bat time and little service show 
its worthlessnes8. 

Wool reps is much used, particularly for dining-room and library 
furniture and drapery. Silk reps, plain, ribbed, or striped, of dif- 
ferent colors, is much used for dining-rooms and parlors. A new 
style of reps, called cotelaine, is very pretty, and no doubt will be 
a great favorite, as it has all of the beauty of brocatelle, with the 
advantage of novelty and greater durability. 

Hair-cloth is so familiar to every one, that a description is 
almost superfluous. However, it will be information to many to 
know that the length of the hair in a horse's tail is the width of 
the hair-cloth. It is made from fourteen to thirty-six inches wide, 
and hair is required thirty-nine inches long to weave cloth thirty- 
six inches wide, and proportionately long for the other widths. 
The hair in the tails of wild horses is much longer than that of 
the domestic. The hair for making cloth is dyed black, and is 
then woven with cotton or linen chain, each separate hair being 
drawn through by hand in the weaving. Hair-cloth is now being 
introduced made of different colored hair, worked into stripes or 
diamond figures. This is very pretty for country parlors, but is 
expensive. 

In hanging drapery, the colors should be in harmony with the 
furniture covering, carpet, and the color of the walls. It is not 
necessary that the same materials, or even the same colors, should 
be used for the curtains and furniture, as a good contrast is more 
pleasing than sameness, even though the material be rich. The 
cornice for window or bed curtains should be either gilt or made 
to suit the architecture of the room. Pressed brass cornices are 
not in such good taste as are wooden ones corresponding with the 
furniture. Gilt and black, or wood painted to match the wood- 
work of the room, are considered much more appropriate. It is 
well to consult the judgment of the cabinet-maker or upholsterer 
in this, as furnishing properly is their business, and they know 
best what should be used to produce good effect. There are many 
trades and professions concentrated in the furnishing of cabinet- 
ware that need no description, as they are not important to our 
purpose of giving information how to furnish welL 

We will continue this matter by giving here some general in- 
formation, and perhaps throw out some original ideas and sugges- 
tions that may be of use. 



I 



\ 



324 APPENDIX. 

We were shown by Mr. Henkels some specimens of mar- 
quetrie work, which he had imported from France. It is very 
ornamental. It consists of wood of different colors, inlaid in the 
forms of birds, animals, and flowers. It is used mnch for alle- 
gorical or emblematic pieces of furniture. The woods used are 
bois-de-rose, which is of a red color, for the groundwork, and 
maple, dyed, of different colors, and artistically shaded, for the 
ornaments and figures. The wood is inlaid by the same process 
as described in the manufacture of boule, and everything depends 
on the nice arrangement of the colors and execution of the shading. 
Some marquetrie work is as perfect as a fine painting, and shows 
great skill and ingenuity in the design and execution. A great 
improvement to marquetrie is a judicious introduction of fine gilt 
and porcelain ornaments — in fact, all of the finest class goods are 
ornamented in this manner. It is almost exclusively made in Paris 
and Germany, and is in great demand there by wealthy persons 
and the nobility ; but a small quantity is either imported or made 
in this country, as the demand is limited and the expense great. 
The porcelain used by the French for ornamenting furniture 
is very elegant in design, and much of it is equal to the best 
Sevres china. It is very costly, which prevents its more general 
use. The artistic arrangement of the different woods in contrast, 
on the same article, is novel and beautiful, and will no doubt be ex- 
tensively encouraged, so soon as the public have it properly placed 
before them. We have seen several suits of furniture of this kind, 
in which the effect is very pleasing, and suggestive of other combina- 
tions. There was one suit of chamber furniture, with all the arti- 
cles of the same character, and made of bird's-eye maple, with rose- 
wood moulding. The maple was of very fine quality, almost gold 
color, and the rosewood being almost black, made a striking 
contrast. 

There is, no doubt, room for much improvement in the manu- 
facture of furniture, and much of the improvement depends on the 
independent taste of those who wish to famish. The fashion of 
furniture has been stereotyped of late years, and everybody has 
been trying the same patterns and kind, without reference to 
appropriateness. 

Antique furniture is a style not exclusively its own, but is bor- 
rowed from most of the other distinctive styles. The French, 
besides the use of old panels and mouldings from ancient build- 



FURNITURE. 325 

ings, have borrowed the grotesque from panels in the Yatican at 
Rome, and from other works of great artists. They have also 
ransacked mythology, and, we may say, demonology, for allegorical 
subjects. It is the most appropriate for library and dining-rooms. 

We have seen book-cases that were superb works of art. The 
mouldings carved in fine leaf ornaments ; the pilasters were knights 
in full armor; the panels, hunting scenes; and the cornice sur- 
mounting the whole, a perfect confusion of guns, pistols, swords, 
spears, and arms, — the whole c&rved in solid oak and dyed a dark 
color, without polish, so as to resemble time-worn wood. The 
effect is grand. A dining-room, where the panels of the sideboard 
are of game or fish, and the top is a fine elk or boar's head, and 
other parts ornamented in same style, is unique and stylish. Poor 
imitations of this furniture should be avoided, as the only thing 
that reconciles correct taste to this outre character of furniture is 
the artistic execution of the sculpture. It must be a work of art, 
(although the figures may not represent anything on the earth,) 
and all imitations are but buffoonery. The dragon's head is a 
favorite ornament for the arm of a chair or sofa, a lion's claw for 
the foot, and a serpent coiled fantastically for the back. In the 
hands of good designers this style is prolific in subjects for the 
pencil, and a room furnished correctly in this manner is very grand 
and imposing, and will endure the ravages of time. 

The world has seen so many mutations in style of furniture that 
it is almost impossible to construct a new character without com- 
bining a number of those in use before. The only distinct styles 
of architecture that have been applied to furniture are Gothic, 
Corinthian, and Grecian. . The celebrated Elizabethan style is an 
imitation of Gothic, and is very stately, and suits the English to 
this day; in fact, the English have never excelled in graceful 
design for furniture, but have aimed more for solidity and dura- 
bility. The styles of Louis XIV., Louis XV., and Louis XVL 
are similar to the Elizabethan in general effect, but of much more 
graceful shape, substituting the curve lines for the angular. The 
three last-named styles are so similar that it is difficult to say 
where one left off and where the other began. Almost all first- 
class cabinet warehouses have each of these styles of goods, and 
the buyer can procure them, if he know what they are without 
asking for them — otherwise he may be shown either style, under 
each name, just as he happens to wish to purchase ; in fact, neither 




326 APPENDIX. 

purchasers nor cabinet-makers in this country know what is the dis- 
tinctive feature of either style ; and even the French themselves 
admit that the form was the same in each style, and the difference 
was only in the character of ornament — gilt, bronze, fancifully 
painted and wood decorations, or a combination of all, being used 
as a purchaser desired; but the general forms of sofas, chairs, 
tables, were nearly the same, and varied about the same as at the 
present time. The greatest extravagance prevailed in France at 
that time, and ornaments of copper, ormolu, porcelain, silver, and 
even of gold, were not uncommon on the furniture of the nobility. 
The most extravagant was the reign of Louis XIV. 

Much of the best and richest furniture sold in Paris is made in 
Brussels, Vienna, and other parts of Europe, and is sent in sec- 
tions, or complete, to Paris, where the congregated taste and 
wealth of the world expect to find everything that human nature 
requires or fancy can conceive. In Paris, a Frenchman cannot go 
to a cabinet-maker and buy all the articles to furnish a room or 
house, like we do in the United States, where our stores are always 
displaying all kinds of goods ready finished, as the trade is divided 
into separate and distinct branches of cabinet-makers, upholsterers 
for stuffing furniture, and putting up drapery, and fitting carpets, 
and gilders. The cabinet-makers are again divided into those who 
make parlor chairs and sofas, others who make chamber furniture, 
others whose business is entirely the antique furniture; then, again, 
into the manufacturers of boule, marquetrie, and ormolu work: 

The garret bosses, as they are called, occupy the upper stories 
of large buildings in retired streets, and there (almost without the 
knowledge of their existence on the part of the fashionable world) 
are made those beautiful articles that have given Paris the world- 
wide renown which induces the tradesman in this country to call 
his abortive creations "the latest French patterns," when neither 
the designer nor the design is worthy of any name, except botch. 

The storekeepers of Paris, who are located in desirable situa- 
tions, purchase this work from the garret bosses, but do not keep 
each one a variety sufficient to furnish a house, but a purchaser 
must buy his sofa and chair-frames from one person ; get his uphol- 
stering done by another; purchase the chamber furniture from 
another ; his ornamental boule and marquetrie cabinets and pedes- 
tals from another; and his curtains and carpets from still another, 
—thus making it a troublesome task for one who wishes to select 



FURNITUBE. 327 

each article wanted. The nobility and other wealthy persons 
rarely see the articles they purchase, bat rely on designs shown 
them, and npon the upholsterer, who takes charge of every de- 
partment 

Many Americans, who had expected to purchase their whole 
furnishing in Paris, have returned home with only a few fancy 
articles and with plenty of experience, which it is hoped will have 
a good effect in causing them to appreciate the enterprise of our 
own countrymen, who keep assortments of everything required in 
house furnishing, and who offer such facilities as cannot be obtained 
in Paris in their line. 

Immense quantities of furniture are made in Paris for Brazil, 
St. Domingo, Cuba, and Mexico. The United States do not 
import much, as our workmen only require the sample for pat- 
terns, and can then produce the article, as well made, and much 
cheaper, excepting such work as we have before mentioned, where 
the demand is so small, and where the manufacturer would not be 
justified in the expense required in producing it The consump- 
tion of furniture is surprisingly on the increase, and there is not a 
branch of domestic manufactures that has increased more rapidly 
than it has. The principal places for the manufacture of first- 
class goods are Philadelphia and New York. Baltimore produces 
but a small quantity of good furniture — about the same as Boston 
does. Philadelphia and New York are the markets where pur- 
chasers can be best accommodated. Philadelphia has always been 
celebrated for superior construction and designs, and can boast of 
a great number of the largest first-class stores in this business in 
the Union. The journeymen cabinet-makers in this city are of a 
most respectable class, and are mostly married men, who either 
work in the regular factories, or else work at home, and sell their 
furniture, unfinished, to dealers. The introduction of the latter 
system from Europe has, in a great measure, depreciated the qual- 
ity of goods in general, as it is impossible to produce good furni- 
ture when the lumber is purchased from the yards in small quan- 
tities, as wanted for immediate use. The workman who labors at 
home in his garret will work from twelve to fifteen hours a day, 
and cannot then make as much wages as one who works for a 
cabinet house ten hours per day; but the feet of being independ- 
ent reconciles the home workman to the extra labor required to 
earn the same amount as the other does. There are a great 



328 APPENDIX. 

many dealers who" buy their furniture from them, and finish it for 
sale. The dealers, not being nnder expense for a factory, and not 
being obliged to keep large amounts of wood on hand to have it 
perfectly seasoned, can undersell (nominally) the regular manufac- 
turers, but experience has proved to many persons that such goods 
are only fit for temporary use, and that furniture made by a regular 
cabinet-maker is the cheapest in the end. 

An immense trade has sprung up the last few years with the 
Southern and Western States in a cheap and showy class of furni- I 

tore, of mongrel design and superficial construction. The loca- j 

tion of so many dealers in the different cities and towns South and 
West has increased the demand for this class of goods to so great 
an extent that a great number of large steam factories are engaged 
in this trade exclusively. They make furniture of showy style, 
with but little labor on it, and most of that done with the scroll- 
saw and turning-lathe. The dealers, both South and West, find 
this work very profitable, as the showy appearance gives an erro- ( 

neons idea of value, and purchasers pay more profitable prices for I 

it than they do for good but less pretentious goods. This furni- 
ture is easily detected by examination, as it consists mostly of 
broad, flat surfaces, cut with scroll-saws into all imaginable and 
unimaginable shapes, and then by a moulding machine the edges 
are taken off uniformly; this gives it a showy finish. The princi- 
pal articles thus made are etageres, or what-nots, fancy tables, hat- 
racks, book-shelves, music stands, bedsteads, cribs, and fancy recep- 
tion-chairs. There is not much of this class of goods that will 
exist as long as the manufacturer, but will no doubt outlive his 
reputation as a cabinet-maker. This is not said to depreciate the 
value of the goods of any person, but is truthful matter, properly 
belonging to a work of this kind. 

The increased facilities of communication with Europe has 
enabled Americans to travel more, and an improved taste is already 
apparent in the demand for works of art, and we trust, before 
many years, that the present age of ostentatious display will be 
succeeded by an era of cultivated taste, when the amount of labor 
and skill in any article of manufacture will constitute its principal 
value. 

Much complaint is made by housekeepers about furniture shrink- 
ing and splitting, and the cabinet-maker has to bear it patiently, to 



FURNITURE. 329 

preserve the favor of his customers. He is also compelled to bear 
the blame when it is attacked by moth-worms; bat we think a 
little reflection will exonerate the cabinet-maker from mnch of the 
responsibility under which he suffers. Where houses are warmed 
with hot-air furnaces, too much care cannot be taken to supply the 
necessary quantity of moisture to the heated air, as no wood-work 
can stand the hot, dry air. Even a house that has been built 
for twenty years will give way in the wood-work if furnaces are 
substituted for the previous manner of heating. How, then, can 
furniture stand without shrinking if the wood-work of an old 
house will shrink after twenty years' seasoning? So with moth- 
worms; keeping a constant fire in the furnace for the winter months, 
having the rooms at a temperature of from seventy-five to ninety 
degrees, gives the moth-worm a genial climate, and affords it 
every facility for increase ; curtains and carpets are shaded from 
the sun's rays, to protect their colors from fading; sofas and chairs 
have outside covers to protect the satin covering from fading and 
soiling; gilt mirror frames are fortified with bobinet, to protect 
them from damage — but cabinetware is left unprotected, and sub- 
ject to all the influence that can tend to injure it If sofas are 
stuffed with. hog-hair, tlje fatty substance in the hair will generate 
moths, and afford them food to propagate enormously. If stuffed • 
with the best curled, and one moth-fly can make a lodgment in- 
side, it will increase its progeny so fast that in one year the work 
must be reupholstered with new materials. There is also a small 
worm called "hair-worm," that will cut the best curled hair as fine 
as sand, and the best material is of no protection, unless the house- 
keeper will use constant vigilance. The evils complained of can 
be remedied by putting out the furnace fire once a week during 
cold weather, and opening the doors, so that the freezing air may 
assist to exterminate the moth, and give the wood- work time to 
recover from the strain on it caused by the continued heat. The 
furnace should also be supplied with water, the evaporation of 
which mingling with the heated air tends to protect cabinetware, 
and is of importance to the preservation of health. When the 
moths have attacked furniture they can be dislodged by removing 
the sofas and chairs out in the air and sunlight for three or four 
hours each day for several days, and beating them well. New furni- 
ture should be removed from the walls of a room once a week, and 



330 APPENDIX. 

the carpet under it well swept and the farniture well dusted and 
whisked under the seats and around the backs ; this will prevent 
the moth-flies from getting inside the farniture, where they are most 
destructive, and the constant disturbance will prevent their cutting 
the covering on the outside. By taking these precautions (after 
having bought good furniture) much inconvenience and expense is 
avoided. 



I 






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3 
mi 




(332) 



FURNITURE. 333 



(Pig. 191.) 

This Plats is designed to show one of the grandest Drawnig- 
room Suits that can be made. It is very finely and elaborately 
carved in solid rosewood. Much of the very fine work conld not 
be introduced by the engraver, and the design is only to show the 
general character. It is covered with Gobelin tapestry of crimson 
ground, with bouquets in the center of the gold medallion. This 
suit, when finished, has truly a regal appearance. The articles are 
all very large and massive, as it is intended for the largest drawing- 
rooms. The style is now called the "Napoleon," and is a near 
approach to the "Elizabethan." The upholstery is all square 
stitching, which stands out boldly from the wood- work. It requires 
to be seen to appreciate its fine artistic carving. 

The Center-table has a marble top, inlaid in the wood edge which 
surrounds it. This wood edge is a great comfort to ladies with 
thinly-covered arms, as the wood, where the arm rests upon it, is 
many degrees warmer than the marble. 

The Etagere is an entirely new pattern, and requires (to be well 
finished) a pair of vases underneath, a time-piece in the center, and 
statuettes, busts, or bronzes on the top. 



W 



334 APPENDIX. 



$artor at grateing-roem Jarratet: 

(Pia. 192.) 

This Plate is a fair representation of a new style of Parlor or 
Drawing-room Furniture. It will be observed that the wood-work 
on the sofas and chairs is continued in scrolls on the back of each. 
The upholstery around these scrolls is stitched up square about 
one and a quarter inches, which gives the scrolls that much depres- 
sion from the surface of the covering. Around the lower part of 
the back there is a roll thrown in, which adds much to the style, 
and enables the workman to draw the covering very tight without 
setting in gores. This roll projects over on the seats, (which are 
very wide,) and makes the furniture very comfortable. This suit 
is finished in medallion Gobelin tapestry of green ground, with 
gold center-pieces, and bouquets of rich colors in the center of the 
gold. 

The Center-table is much the same as on Figure 193, only this 
one is round and the other is oval. 

The Etagere is very ornamental, but is difficult to transfer prop- 
erly on paper. It has a marble slab in the center, and has seven 
mirrors in the frames in the back. It is in harmony with the 
other articles on the plate. 




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(836) 



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pat) 



FURNITURE. 337 

$atlflr Jptntitstt. 

(Pio. 193.) 

This Plate contains the prominent articles for a Parlor, and 
can be made either in rosewood or walnut. This style of heavy 
mouldings (with jast sufficient carved ornament to relieve the 
joints of the sections) is now very fashionable for persons not 
wishing very expensive furniture. The sofas, arm-chairs, and small 
chairs are of the same shape and finish. The seats are plainly uphol- 
stered and the backs are tufted, 'the style of upholstery can be 
changed to suit the character of the covering to be used. If satin 
or brocatelle, it is well to tuft the backs and do the seats plainly ; if 
plush, it makes the best finish to do it all plainly and have all of the 
edges square stitched, (see Figure 192;) if mochette or tapestry 
covering in medallions is to be used, it must be plain, with elastic 
edges, so that the cover, when drawn on tight at first, will pull 
hard on the elastic edge, and, as the cover stretches, the elasticity 
of the edge will draw it tight, and keep it from wrinkling. 

The Center-table has a marble top, ordinarily; but a beautiful 
way of finishing it is with plate-glass top in a frame, and the inside 
of the table lined with velvet, leaving a box four inches deep. The 
lid can be removed at pleasure, and articles placed inside are pro- 
tected from the dust and from handling. The effect is very good 

The Etagere matches the other articles. 



338 APPENDIX. 

<f jpratiror Jurnitart 

(Pia. 194.) 

This is a Suit of superb Rosewood Furniture. The Bedstead 
has circular foot and head posts, ornamented with cord and tassels, 
carved in solid rosewood; the mouldings are massive, and being 
placed around sunken panels, add greatly to the general effect; 
the panel in the headboard is a very large plain surface, and is 
veneered four ways, which will keep it always level, and also serves 
to show fine figured wood to advantage ; the top of the headboard 
ornament contains a fine medallion head. 

The Wardrobe is very large, with three mirrors in the doors; 
the end doors are serpentine in form, to suit the shape of the cor- 
nice; the carving matches the bedstead. 

The Bureau is of serpentine form, with four drawers in the center 
part and with a closet in each end ; the glass frame has a closet 
on each side with shelves for toilette articles; it corresponds in 
style with the other articles, which are all of extra large size. 

The Washstand has closets in the end, and is open in the center 
to receive foot-bath, with marble in the under part and marble 
top and shelves. 

These articles match beautifully in the general character. The 
serpentine and curve lines prevail throughout and greatly conduce 
to the artistic beauty of the pattern. The furniture is much more 
elegant than can be shown in a wood-cut. 




a* 

B 

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(3») 



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(SJO) 



FURNITURE. 341 

%mitr Jfttrnitet 

(Pia. 135.) 

This Plate represents a Suit of the new style of Chamber 
Furniture, of two distinct characters. In one the ground is 
walnut finished with wax polish, and the mouldings (as shown 
by the black lines on the drawing) of polished ebony. This is 
▼ery unique and chaste. In the other the ground is bird's-eye 
maple, with the mouldings of rosewood. With the walnut suit, it 
is beautiful and effective, if the inside doors of the room and the 
window-panes and cornices are finished in the same style of work. 
A mantle, and mirror for the mantle, made in the same way, en- 
hance the beauty and style of the chamber, and are not much more 
expensive than marble mantles and gilt frames. The maple suit 
is beautifully polished, and the contrast of the rosewood moulding 
with the gold color of the maple is very good. It is particularly 
appropriate for warm climates, from its cool appearance, and, when 
in contrast with blue and gold paper-hangings, and blue carpets 
and drapery, is well adapted for a lady's chamber. 

The Wardrobe has two mirror-doors, and the other articles have 
marble tops of appropriate color. 

The furniture is all of large size. 

The Chairs have spring-seats, and are covered with materials to 
suit carpets and drapery. 

This suit must be seen to be properly appreciated. 



342 APPENDIX. 

Cfynntor $wnatvxt. 

(Pig. 196.) 

This Plate consists of a Suit of Chamber Furniture. The 
Bedstead is rounded at the foot, and the headboard is one large 
panel, veneered fonr different ways, with the grain erossed, to 
prevent its shrinking; the earring is just sufficient to carry out 
the design, and is well executed; the mouldings are all massive 
and well arranged. 

The Wardrobe is in style to harmonize with the bedstead. It 
has mirror-doors, and a separate lock on each door, leaving the 
door to close one inch on the center-piece ; by this arrangement 
the door can shrink without leaving a crevice for dust to enter. 
The inside of the whole is grained to imitate maple, which makes 
a neat and clean finish. 

The Dressing Bureau is of large size, with a marble top, and 
large mirror to swing in the standard. It is finished to match the 
other articles in the suit 

The Washstand is elliptical in front, with closets in the ends and 
drawer in the middle; it is open in the center, with marble top, 
and has marble in the opening, where there is sufficient room for 
the foot-urn. 

The other articles required for a full suit are a lounge, a com- 
fortable arm-chair, four or six chairs, a towel-stand, and most 
generally a small table. The space on the plate would not admit 
of them. 







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(843) 



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(344) 



FURNITURE. 345 

Stewi $mitvxt. 

(Fio. 19T.) 

This Plate represents Library Furniture of the most elaborate 
character, upon which the carving is very fine. 

The Bookcase is eleven feet long and twelve feet high, with a 
secretary and desk under the center door ; a drawer pulls out, and 
by leaving the front down, we have the desk, with all of the 
ordinary interior arrangement for papers, etc. Observe that 
on each end and on the two center pilasters there are figures in 
sculpture ; around the top of the doors are also fine sculptured 
pieces, and the cornice is handsomely ornamented with stag's head, 
etc. ; the drawers have grotesque heads for handles ; the mould- 
ings are all appropriately carved. 

The Library Table is carved to suit the bookcase, with grotesque 
heads ; it has twelve small and two large drawers, half on each 
side ; the cut should have two heads on each drawer for handles ; 
this improvement has been made since the artist sketched it for 
this book. 

The Arm-chair is also carved to match the other pieces; the 
back is carved to represent a hunting scene, with deer, dogs, and 
hunters, with hunting apparatus; the front legs and arms are 
dragon's head and claws ; this chair is covered with morocco, and 
finished with gilt nails. The succeeding plate, Figure 198, is a 
continuation of this suit 



346 * APPENDIX. 

&nftpu Jratitatt, 

(Fig. 198.) 

This Plate and the preceding are of the same character, and 
the style is what is called "Benaisaance" in France, and "Antique" 
in this country. 

The Secretary is a very elegant piece of furniture, with artistic 
sculpture. The writing-fall is balanced by an ingenious contri- 
vance, by which it rises and falls without jar. It must be seen to 
be appreciated. 

The Lounge is of the proper shape for comfort, with springs in 
the arm and roll at the top of the arm ; the seat is of extra width, 
and very elastic. 

The Arm-chair on the right is a grand chair, with carved heads 
for the arms and with very elastic springs in both seat and back, 
and is covered with French morocco, studded around the edges 
with gilt nails; the fluting style of upholstery in the back is new, 
and both beautiful and comfortable. 

The Arm-chair on the left is of same character, with dragon's 
head and claws for the front, and coiled serpents for the back; the 
seat and top of the back are covered with morocco and finished 
with gilt nails. Both of these chairs are of late importation from 
one of the best establishments in Paris. 







2-K 



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S*> 




(848) 



FURNITURE. 349 

yiteatjr Jnntttart. 

(Fia. 199.) 

This Plats shows a neat, plain set of Library Furniture, such 
as is in general use. Other articles than those exhibited in the 
cut are required, according to a purchaser's taste or the size of the 
room. 

The Bookcase is five feet two inches wide oyer the cornice, and 
nine feet six inches high, with panels of wood at the bottom of the 
doors and plate-glasses above. The cat represents the article 
very well indeed. 

The Library Table is of oval form, with a drawer for paper; the 
top is cloth, inlaid with a heavy moulded wood edge. 

The Lounge is spring-seat, and with or without spring-arm, as 
may be wanted ; the arm can be had either right or left. 

The Spanish Reading Ohair is of unique style, and is very com- 
fortable, being half recumbent 

The Reclining Chair is a pattern that is in much favor, and is 
the most comfortable chair in use ; it graduates its position to the 
will of the person, and enjoys the merit of utility, without compli- 
cation of machinery ; it is also very substantial in construction. 



350 APPENDIX. 

linraj-wflm ianbat 

(Fia. 200.) 

This Plate is a faithful delineation of the articles intended to 
be represented. 

The Sideboard is very elaborate in the carving, and has a French 
plate mirror in the back of the top part, and a very thick marble 
slab; it is an appropriate style for oiling in walnut, as the oil 
brings the fine carving ont better than varnish does; it is five feet 
four inches long ontside. 

The Dining-table is sixteen feet long, and four feet six inches 
wide, and is a splendid article — in fact one of the richest tables we 
have ever seen ; the mouldings are all more massive than the cut 
represents ; there is also a neat case for the leaves, which is on 
castors, for convenience in moving. Sometimes a Lounge is made 
with an arrangement in the seat for holding the table leaves; but 
this is a mere matter of convenience to the purchaser, and its 
utility depends on the size of the dining-room. 

The Arm-chair and the small chair are in perfect unison of style 
with the other articles; they have spring-seats, and are most gen- 
erally covered with French morocco and studded with gilt nails; 
reps for the covering and window-curtains is a very pretty finish, 
but is too warm for a Southern climate, and is likely to be attacked 
by moths; the morocco generally used is only split horse-skin; 
the French morocco or goat-skin is easily distinguished, as after 
dressing there is a dark streak left, caused by the goat's mane. 




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(361) 



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(3&2) 



FURNITURE. 353 



(Pig. 201.) 

This Plate represents a fine Suit of Dining-room Furniture. 
This is a favorite style, and the effect of the furniture in a room is 
much better than the plate represents. 

The Buffet or Sideboard is the new style circular end, with 
closets in the ends and center part; the back has mirrors in it; 
the marble is of extra thickness, and of either white Italian, Broca- 
dilla, Tennessee, or black and gold ; white looks best on walnut, 
and Brocadilla or Tennessee on oak ; the carving is merely suffi- 
cient to carry ont the design; the rest is relieved with bold and 
effective mouldings; the size is five feet four inches long by two 
feet wide. 

The Dining-table is of the center-table pattern, that is, with pil- 
lars and plinth ; it is either fonr feet, four feet six inches, or five 
feet wide, and twelve, fourteen, or sixteen feet long, according to 
the width. The general character of the table corresponds with 
the sideboard, but a table similar to that on Figure 202 would 
also be appropriate. 

The Service Table, as shown, has three shelves, but by touching 
a spring the top leaf lowers and the under one rises to meet the 
center leaf, when it is not all in use ; it is a very convenient article 
for side-dishes and dessert. 

The Chair is either cane-seat and back, or stuffed, without 
springs, in any material required ; the pattern can be varied to 
suit a purchaser. 

The sofa on Figure 202, with very little alteration, would be 
appropriate for this suit. 



354 APPENDIX. 

flain gmin^nmm |ttrnifott. 

(Fig. 202.) 

This Plate represents a Suit of Plain Dining-room Furniture. 
The style is plain and economical. The Sideboard is four feet six 
inches long, and is finished with a white marble top. The Etagere 
top has two mirrors in the back, which give a good finish to it; 
the under part is divided into closets, with shelves ; it has two 
drawers under the marble. 

The Dining-table extends eight, ten, or twelve feet, according to 
the wants of a purchaser; it has a very neat appearance, and is a 
favorite for plain furnishing. A Case containing the loose leaves 
accompanies the table ; the leaves are solid walnut or oak, as the 
wood happens to be wanted. 

The Sofa is a comfortable lounging place, with spring-seat, and 
pillow-springs in the arms ; it is covered with hair-cloth, morocco, 
worsted reps, or enameled oil-cloth. 

The Chair is made either with stuffed or cane seat, and is a very 
substantial, plain article, which suits with the rest of the furniture. 

Additional pieces can be ordered to match. A complete suit 
would also include a butler's tray, a side-table, and a pair of arm- 
chairs. 




v07 
P* 

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(855) 



This book should be returned to 
the Library on or before the last date 
3fj- ■ Vlnw. 



FA2645.795.5 



the Ubrary°o n t°h U lf * " tUri 

» •*" ' S?i before the '■« date 



FA2645.795.S 




jo leave library 



FA 26U5-T95.5